Cultural Landscape A combination of cultural features and physical features Carl Sauer-an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group LA vs. NYC Formal Region Uniform or homogeneous region An area where everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics Political Units Wheat Belt Climate Language Election 2000: Regional Differences Fig. 1-10: Presidential election results by county and state illustrate differences in regional voting patterns. Functional Region Nodal region, an area organized around a node or focal point The characteristic is predominate at the node and diminishes in importance outward Newspaper circulation TV stations How could technology be breaking down traditional functional regions? Formal and Functional Regions Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions. Vernacular Region Perceptual region, a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity Mental Map Vernacular Regions Fig. 1-12: A number of factors are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries. Spatial Association Regions can be constructed at varying scales Different conclusions may be reached concerning a region’s characteristics depending on its scale Spatial Association at Various Scales Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the U.S., Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors. Cultural Ecology The study of human-environment relationships von Humboldt and Ritter: human actions were caused by environmental conditions Environmental determinism This is disputed by some who state the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have ability to adjust to their environment Possiblism Environmental Modification in the Netherlands Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands. Environmental Modification in Florida Fig. 1-16: Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many unintended side effects.