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12/1 do now • A pendulum consists of a ball of mass m is suspend at the end of a massless cord of length L by an applied force. The pendulum is drawn aside through an angle of 45o with the vertical and then released. 1. What is the applied force on the pendulum, in terms of m and g, while it is suspended? 2. What is the tension force on the pendulum, in terms of m and g, while it is suspended? 3. What is the speed of the pendulum ball at the low point of its swing, in terms of L and g? [show work] assignment • Due – Take home quiz – homework • Homework – 7.1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 Potential Energy and Energy Conservation Chapter 7 PowerPoint® Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition – Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Goals for Chapter 7 – To study gravitational and elastic potential energy – To determine when total mechanical energy is conserved – To examine situations when total mechanical energy is not conserved – To examine conservative forces, nonconservative forces, and the law of energy conservation – To determine force from potential energy 7.1 gravitational potential energy • Energy associated with position is called potential energy. This kind of energy is a measure of the potential or possibility for work to be done. • The potential energy associated with a body’s weight and its height above the ground is called gravitational potential energy. When a body moves downward, gravity does positive work, kinetic energy increases and gravitational potential energy decreases. When a body moves upward, gravity does negative work. Kinetic energy decreases and gravitational potential energy increases Gravitational potential energy • The product of the weight mg and the height y above the origin of coordinates, is called the gravitational potential energy, Ugrav: Ugrav = mgy Wgrav = mg(y1 – y2) = Ugrav,1 – Ugrav,2 = - (Ugrav,2 – Ugrav,1 ) = -∆Ugrav - Wgrav = ∆Ugrav The negative sign in front of ∆Ugrav is essential. Conservation of mechanical energy (gravitational forces only) • When the body’s weight is the only force acting on it while it moves either up or down, say from y1 (v1) to y2 (v2), Fnet = W = mg. • According to work-energy theorem, the total work done on the body equals the change in the body’s kinetic energy: • Wtot = ∆K = K2 –K1 Wtot = Wgrav = -∆Ugrav = Ugrav,1 – Ugrav,2 K2 –K1 = Ugrav,1 – Ugrav,2 K2 + Ugrav,2 = K1 + Ugrav,1 (if only gravity does work) • Or ½ mv12 + mgy1 = ½ mv22 + mgy2 K2 + Ugrav,2 = K1 + Ugrav,1 (if only gravity does work) • The sum K + Ugrav is called E, the total mechanical energy of the system. • “system” means the body of mass m and the earth. When only the force of gravity does work, the total mechanical energy is constant – or conserved. CAUTION • Gravitational potential energy is relative, you can choose any height as your zero point. • Gravitational potential energy Ugrav = mgy is a shared property between Earth and the object. Example 7.1 Height of a baseball from energy conservation • You throw a 0.145 kg baseball straight up in the air, giving it an initial upward velocity of magnitude 20.0 m/s. find how high it goes, ignoring air resistance. 20.4 m • Notice how velocity changes as forms of energy interchange. Forces other than gravity doing work since 1 1 2 2 Wother ( mv 2 mgh 2 ) ( mv1 mgh1 ) E 2 E1 2 2 • E represents total mechanical energy • When Wother is positive, E increases, and K2 + Ugrav,2 is greater than K1 + Ugrav,1. • When Wother is negative, E decreases. • In the special case in which no forces other than the body’s weight do work, Wother = 0, the total mechanical energy is then constant, 12/2 Do now • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Two stones, one of mass m and the other of mass 2m, are thrown directly upward with the same velocity at the same time from ground level and feel no air resistance. Which statement about these stones is true? Both stones will reach the same height because they initially had the same amount of kinetic energy. The lighter stone will reach its maximum height sooner than the heavier one. The heavier stone will go twice as high as the lighter one because it initially had twice as much kinetic energy. At their highest point, both stones will have the same gravitational potential energy because they reach the same height. At its highest point, the heavier stone will have twice as much gravitational potential energy as the lighter one because it is twice as heavy. assignment • Homework – 7.1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 Example 7.2 Work and energy in throwing a baseball In example 7.1, suppose your hand moves up 0.50 m while you are throwing the ball, which leaves your hand with an upward velocity of 20.0 m/s. Again ignore air resistance. a. Assuming that your hand exerts a constant upward force on the ball, find the magnitude of that force. b. Find the speed of the ball at a point 15.0 m above the point where it leaves your hand. Work and energy along a curved path To find the work done by the gravitational force along a curved path, we divide the path into small segments ∆s; The work done by the gravitational force over this segment is the scalar product of the force and the displacement. In terms of unit vectors, the force is w = mg = -mgj and the displacement is ∆s = ∆xi + ∆yj, so the work done by the gravitational force is: w s mgˆj (xiˆ yˆj) mgy • The work done by gravity is the same as though the body had been displaced vertically a distance ∆y, with no horizontal displacement. This is true for every segment: So even if the path a body follows between two points is curved, the total work done by the gravitational force depends only on the difference in height between the two points of the path. Conceptual Example 7.3 Energy in projectile motion • A batter hits two identical baseballs with the same initial speed and height but different initial angles. Prove that at a given height h, both balls have the same speed if air resistance can be neglected. At all points at the same height the potential energy is the same, thus the kinetic energy at this height must be the same for both ball, and the speeds must be the same too. Example 7.4 Calculating speed along a vertical circle Steve skateboards down a curved ramp. If we treat Steve and his skateboard as a particle, he moves through a quarter-circle with radius R = 3.00 m. The total mass of Steve and his skateboard is 25.0 kg. He starts from rest and there is no friction. a. Find his speed at the bottom of the ramp. 7.67 m/s b. Find the normal force that acts on him at the bottom of the curve. 735 N Example 7.5 A vertical circle with friction • In Example 7.4, suppose that the ramp is not frictionless and that Steve’s speed at the bottom is only 6.00 m/s. What work was done by the friction force acting on him? -285 J Example 7.6 The energy of a crate on an inclined plane • We want to load a 12 kg crate into a truck by sliding it up a ramp 2.5 m long, inclined at 30o. A worker, giving no thought to friction, calculates that he can get the crate up the ramp by giving it an initial speed of 5.0 m/s at the bottom and letting it go. But friction is not negligible; the crate slides 1.6 m up the ramp, stops, and slides back down. a. Assuming the friction force acting on the crate is constant, find its magnitude. b. How fast is the crate moving when it reaches the bottom of the ramp? a. 35 N b. 2.5 m/s Test your understanding 7.1 The figure shows two different frictionless ramps. The heights y1 and y2 are the same for both ramps. If a block of mass m is released from rest at the left-hand end of each ramp, which block arrives at the right-hand end with the greater speed? i. Block I; ii. Block II iii iii. The speed is the same for both blocks. • Finish last lab • Make corrections • Finish homework 12/3 do now • A block on a horizontal frictionless plane is attached to a spring, as shown. The block oscillates along the x-axis with simple harmonic motion of amplitude A. x = -A x=0 x=A A. Which of the following statements about the block is correct? 1. At x = 0, its velocity is zero. 2. At x = 0, its acceleration is at a maximum. 3. At x = A, its displacement is at a maximum, 4. At x = A, its velocity is at a maximum, 5. At x = A, its acceleration is zero B. Which of the following statements about energy is correct? 1. the potential energy of the spring is at minimum at x = 0 2. the potential energy of the spring is at minimum at x = A 3. the kinetic energy of the block is at minimum at x = 0 4. the kinetic energy of the spring is at maximum at x = A 5. the kinetic energy of the block is always equal to the potential energy of the spring. assignment • Homework questions? • Homework – 7.15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25 7.2 Work and energy in the motion of a mass on a spring – Work done on the spring is positive: Wel 1 2 1 2 kx 2 kx1 U el , 2 U el ,1 U el 2 2 The elastic potential energy in a spring is defined as: 1 2 U el kx 2 Where x is the extension or compression (x2 - x1) of the spring. Uel is always positive. Work done on the mass by a spring 1 2 1 2 Wel kx1 kx 2 U el ,1 U el , 2 U el 2 2 Compare Grav. PE and Elastic PE • Gravitational potential energy Ugrav = mgy Wgrav = - ∆Ugrav the zero energy point can be arbitrary. • Elastic potential energy Uel = ½ kx2 Wel = - ∆Uel The zero energy point is defined as when the spring is neither stretched nor compressed. Work-energy theorem • The work-energy theorem says that Wtot = K2 – K1, no matter what kind of forces are acting on a body. Wgrav Wel Wother K2 K1 U grav ,1 U grav ,2 Uel,1 Uel,2 Wother K2 K1 U grav ,1 Uel,1 K1 Wother U grav ,2 Uel,2 K2 U grav ,1 Uel,1 K1 Wother U grav ,2 Uel,2 K2 U1 K1 Wother U 2 K2 • This equation is the most general statement of the relationship among kinetic energy, potential energy, and work done by other forces. • The work done by all forces other than the gravitational force or elastic force equals the change in the total mechanical energy E = K + U of the system, where U = Ugrav +Uel is the sum of the gravitational potential energy and the elastic potential energy. Wother U K • The “system” is made up of the body of mass m, the earth with which it interacts through the gravitational force, and the spring of force constant k. • Bungee jumping is an example of transformations among kinetic energy, elastic potential energy, and gravitational potential energy. • As the jumper falls, gravitational potential energy decreases and is converted into the kinetic energy of the jumper and the elastic potential energy of the bungee cord. Beyond a certain point in the fall, the jumper’s speed decreases so that both gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy are converted into elastic potential energy. Example 7.7 Motion with elastic potential energy A glider with mass m = 0.200 kg sits on a frictionless horizontal air track, connected to a spring with force constant k = 5.00 N/m. You pull on the glider, stretching the spring 0.100 m, and then release it with no initial velocity. The glider begin to move back toward it equilibrium position (x = 0). What is its x-velocity when x = 0.080 m? 0.30m / s For the system of Example 7.7, suppose the glider is initially at rest at x = 0, with the spring un-stretched. You then apply a constant force F in the + x direction with magnitude 0.610 N to the glider. What is the glider’s velocity when it has moved to x = 0.100 m? 0.60 m / s In a “worst-case” design scenario, a 2000 kg elevator with broken cables is falling at 400 m/s when it first contacts a cushioning spring at the bottom of the shaft. The spring is supposed to stop the elevator, compressing 2.00 m as it does so. During the motion a safety clamp applies a constant 17,000 N frictional force to the elevator. As a design consultant, your are asked to determine what the force constant of the spring should be. 1.06 x 104 N/m Test Your Understanding 7.2 Consider the situation in example 7.9 at the instant when the elevator is still moving downward and the spring is compress by 1.00 m. which of the energy bar graphs in the figure most accurately shows the kinetic energy K, gravitational potential energy Ugrav, and elastic potential energy Uel at this instant? When a force acting on an object, the object’s total energy does not change, only the form of energy changes, such as change from kinetic to potential and vise versa. Such force is called conservative force. Conservative forces have four properties: 1. It can be expressed as the difference between the initial and final values of a potential-energy function. 2. It is reversible. 3. It is independent of the path of the body and depends only on the starting and ending points. 4. When the starting and ending points are the same, the total work is zero. • Examples of conservative forces: gravity, force from a spring • When the only forces that do work are conservative forces, the total mechanical energy E = K + U is constant. Conservative forces • The work by a conservative force like gravity does not depend on the path your hiking team chooses, only how high you climb. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Non-conservative forces When a force acting on an object, the object’s total energy changes. Such force is called non conservative force. When non-conservative force does work, the energy is not reversible. Some non conservative forces, like kinetic friction or fluid resistance, cause mechanical energy to be lost or dissipated; a force of this kind is called a dissipative force. There are also non conservative forces that increase mechanical energy. The fragments of an exploding firecracker fly off with very large kinetic energy. The forces unleashed by the chemical reaction of gunpowder with oxygen are non conservative because the process is not reversible. Example 7.10 Frictional work depends on the path You are rearranging your furniture and wish to move a 40.0 kg futon 2.50 m across the room. However, the straight-line path is blocked by a heavy coffee table that you don’t want to move. Instead, you slide the futon in a dogleg path over the floor, the doglegs are 2.00 m and 1.50 m long. Compared to the straight-line path, how much more work must you do to push the futon is the dogleg path? The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.200. 78 J Example 7.11 conservative or non-conservative? In a certain region of space of the force on an electron is F = Cxj, where C is a positive constant. The electron moves in a counter-clockwise direction around a square loop in the xyplane. The corners of the square are at (x, y) = (0,0), (L,0), (L,L), and (0,L). Calculate the work done on the electron by the force F during one complete trip around the square. Is this force conservative or ? Wtot = CL2 non-conservative Work done by friction • The absolute value of work done by friction equals to the change in internal energy. W fric Uint • If there are only conservative forces and friction doing work: K1 U1 Uint K2 U 2 K U Uint 0 Example 7.12 work done by friction • In Example 7.4, suppose that the ramp is not frictionless and that Steve’s speed at the bottom is only 6.00 m/s. How much heat is generated? -285 J Test Your Understanding 7.3 In a hydroelectric generating station, falling water is used to drive turbines (“water wheels”), which in turn run electric generators. Compared to the amount of gravitational potential energy released by the falling water, how much electrical energy is produced? i. The same; ii. More; iii. Less. iii • Lets consider motion along a straight line, with coordinated x. We denote the x-component of force, a function of x, by Fx(x), and the potential energy as U(x). Recall that the work done by a conservative force equals the negative of the change ΔU in potential energy: W = - ΔU Fx ( x) dU ( x) dx A conservative force acts to push the system toward lower potential energy • Let’s consider the function for elastic potential energy, U(x) = ½ kx2. The elastic force on the spring and its displacement from the center position always have opposite direction. • Similarly, for gravitational potential energy we have U(y) = mgy; dU d (m gy) Fy dy dy m g • which is the correct expression for gravitational force. (gravitational force is downward) A conservative force is the negative derivative of the corresponding potential energy. Example 7.13 An electric force and its potential energy C U ( x) x dU ( x) 1 C Fx ( x) C ( 2 ) 2 dx x x The expression inside the parentheses represents a particular operation on the function U, in which we take the partial derivative of U with respect to each coordinate, multiply by the corresponding unit vector, and then take the vector sum. This operation is called the gradient of U and is denoted as • Let’s check the function U = mgy for gravitational potential energy: • Let’s check the function U = ½ kx2 for elastic potential energy: ½kx2 ½kx2 ½kx2 ½kx2 kx Test Your Understanding 7.4 A particle moving along the x-axis is acted on by a conservative force Fx. At a certain point, the force is zero. a.Which of the following statements about the value of the potential-energy function U(x) at that point is correct? i. U(x) = 0 ii. U(x) > 0 iii.U(x) < 0 iv.Not enough information is given to decide. b. Which of the following statements about the value of the derivative of U(x) at that point is correct? i. dU(x)/dx = 0 ii. dU(x)/dx > 0 iii.dU(x)/dx < 0 iv.Not enough information is given to decide. • Energy diagram is a graph used to show energy as a function of x. • Lets consider a glider with mass m that moves along the x-axis on an air track. In this case Fx = -kx; U(x) = ½ kx2. If the elastic force of the spring is the only horizontal force acting on the glider, the total mechanical energy E = K + U is constant, independent of x. The potential energy curve for motion of a particle • Refer the potential energy function and its corresponding components of force. The direction of the force on a body is not determined by the sign of the potential energy U. rather, it’s the sign of Fx = -dU/dx that matters. The physically significant quantity is the difference is the value of U between two points, which is just what the derivative Fx = -dU/dx measures. This means that you can always add a constant to the potential energy function without changing the physics of the situation. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley • • • • If the total energy ET > E3, the particle can “escape” to x > x4 If ET= E2, the particle is trapped between xc and xd. If ET = E1, the particle is trapped between xa and xb. Minimum possible energy is Eo; the particle is at rest at x1. 12/5 Do now • The force constant of a spring is 800 N/m and the unstretched length is 0.76 m. A 1.9-kg block is suspended from the spring. An external force slowly pulls the block down, until the spring has been stretched to a length of 0.91 m. The external force is then removed, and the block rises. In this situation, what is the external force on the block before it is removed? Do now • Two identical balls are thrown directly upward, ball A at speed v and ball B at speed 2v, and they feel no air resistance. Which statement about these balls is correct? 1. Ball B will go four times as high as ball A because it had four times the initial kinetic energy. 2. The balls will reach the same height because they have the same mass and the same acceleration 3. At their highest point, the acceleration of each ball is instantaneously equal to zero because they stop for an instant. 4. At its highest point, ball B will have twice as much gravitational potential energy as ball A because it started out moving twice as fast. 5. Ball B will go twice as high as ball A because it had twice the initial speed. 11/28 do now • Consider two massless springs connected in parallel. Springs 1 and 2 have spring constants k1 and k2 are connected via a thin, vertical rod. A constant force of magnitude F is being exerted on the rod. The rod remains perpendicular to the direction of the applied force, so that the springs are extended by the same amount. This system of two springs is equivalent to a single spring, of spring constant k. Find the effective spring constant k of the twospring system. Give your answer for the effective spring constant in terms of k1 and k2 and . 12/3 do now • You are a member of an Alpine Rescue Team and must project a box of supplies up an incline of constant slope angle α so that it reaches a stranded skier who is a vertical distance h above the bottom of the incline. The incline is slippery, but there is some friction present, with kinetic friction coefficient μk. Use the work-energy theorem to calculate the minimum speed you must give the box at the bottom of the incline so that it will reach the skier. Express your answer in terms of h, g, μk, and α. h α Force O R Re R2 11/14 do now A spring gun with a spring constant of 5 x 103 N/m fires a bullet of mass 5 x 10-3 kg into the air when the spring is compressed to 0.02 meters. 1. What is the initial maximum acceleration of the bullet? 2. What is the initial maximum velocity of the bullet as it leaves the gun? 3. If the bullet rises to a maximum vertical height of 15 meters, what is the angle with respect to the horizontal direction at which the bullet was fired? 11/15 do now • A ball of mass m rolls down a ramp shown from zero initial velocity from point A, around loop and through point B, and to point C where it strikes a fixed spring of spring constant k. Assume there are no non-conservative forces present. 1. What is the kinetic energy of the ball at point B? 2. If the ball is not to fall off the ramp as it approaches point B, what is minimum height of H? A m H B r h C