EVOLUTION TOWARDS PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION AND INCREASED OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY WORLDWIDE ALAIN BELANGER MANAGER PRODUCT PLANNING MARCH 12, 2013 1 We continue to enhance industry presence We are expanding our involvement in the civil aerospace and aviation industry by engaging and supporting industry associations, regulatory agencies, government bodies on policy and regulatory developments BOMBARDIER CNS/ATM LEADERSHIP INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER ASSOCIATIONS International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) GANIS symposium in Sept 2011 PBN Workshop in Oct 2012 ANC Conference in Nov 2012 (member of 3 delegations) International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA) CNS/ATM Committee General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) Technical Policy Committee Flight Operations Policy Committee Avionics & Electronic Systems Subcommittee Aerospace Industries Association of America (AIA) Air Transportation Services Committee 3 BOMBARDIER CNS/ATM LEADERSHIP BUSINESS JET OPERATOR ASSOCIATIONS International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) Member of CNS/ATM Working Group Hosted WG meeting in April 2012 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) International Operators Conference Planning Committee (IOC) Access Committee 4 AGENDA 5 1 DEFINITIONS & ROADMAP 2 EN ROUTE & TERMINAL RNAV/RNP BENEFITS 3 RNAV (GNSS)/(RNP) APPROACHES & BENEFITS 4 RNAV (GNSS)/(RNP) APPROACHES WORLDWIDE DEPLOYMENT PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION DEFINITIONS & ROADMAP ANNUAL CONFERENCE MARCH 12, 2013 6 VISION FLIGHT DECK PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION (PBN) Safety MAIN OBJECTIVES Foster GNSS based navigation, including SBAS, GBAS and GRAS augmentation systems and introduction of Galileo , modernization of GPS and GLONASS, etc… Reduce the need to maintain sensorspecific routes and procedures, and their associated costs PBN 7 Source: ICAO Facilitate more efficient use of airspace (route placement, fuel efficiency, noise abatement, etc.) Capacity Efficiency Environment Access Simplify the operational approval process for operators by providing a limited set of navigation specifications for global use PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION – RNAV/RNP Evolving PBN worldwide for optimized airspace utilization PBN Roadmap (e.g. Advanced RNP, 4D trajectories) 8 PBN – RNAV & RNP CURRENT SPECIFICATIONS TERMINAL & EN ROUTE PBN RNAV RNAV 5&10 “En Route” 5 - Continental Airways 10- Oceanic & Remote Areas RNP RNAV 1&2 “Terminal” RNP 4 “Oceanic & Remote Areas” SID Airways STAR B-RNP-1 SID STAR RNP APCH (Basic) RNP AR RNAV(GNSS) RNAV (RNP) LNAV (GPS-NPA) = 0.3 LNAV/VNAV (APV baro) < 0.3 LP LPV (APV SBAS/EGNOS) 9 Source: ICAO PBN – ICAO ROADMAP RNAV & RNP 10 Source: ICAO PBN – RNP ADVANCED (BEING DEFINED) ALL PHASES OF FLIGHT Description: All-encompassing navigation specification addressing all phases of flight to maximise the benefit and to minimise cost to operators in gaining operational approval Advanced RNP benefit objectives: Increasing flight efficiency and overall efficiency of the ATM system Providing greater flexibility in placing ATS Routes, SIDS and STARS where most convenient Enable more optimized RNAV 1 or RNAV 5 routes Routes can be placed where they better suit aircraft performance Opens more optimized flight paths with noise footprint reduction 11 Source: EUROCONTROL PBN – 4D TRAJECTORY (BEING DEFINED) TERMINAL & EN ROUTE Description of 4DTRAD: Data Communication Supporting 4D Trajectory Concept (4DTRAD) is based on a number of basic operational and environmental conditions as well as ground capability for the expected time of applicability of the Service 4DTRAD benefit goals: Better flight efficiency flight profile and fuel burn optimisation as a result of: o Early agreement with the Flight Crew on the trajectory to be flown o Leaving the decision on the best way to meet the constraints with the flight crew Enhanced flight efficiency by early notification of arrival requirements, airborne and on ground, to reduce the need for severe sequencing measures Increased predictability of the real trajectory that will be flown and of the arrival time will allow better planning 12 Source: EUROCONTROL PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION EN ROUTE & TERMINAL RNAV/RNP BENEFITS ANNUAL CONFERENCE MARCH 12, 2013 13 © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) PBN – RNAV 1 & 2 “TERMINAL” SID & STAR – PRECISION RNAV (P-RNAV) Description: RNAV based Standard Instrument Departure (SID) and Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) procedures Provides greater consistency in SID & STAR procedures design Allows terminal airspace routes that best meet the needs of airport/ATC/pilot alike Facilitates more direct routes with simple connections to the en-route structure Helps routes design considering environmental issues e.g. by-pass densely populated areas Enhances arrival and departure streams segregation, thus reducing pilot/controller workload 14 Source: EUROCONTROL & France Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) PBN – RNAV 5 “EN ROUTE” CONTINENTAL AIRWAYS – BASIC RNAV (B-RNAV) Description: Navigation method allowing aircraft operations on any desired flight path within controlled airspace Improved management in traffic flow More efficient use of available airspace with more flexible ATS route structure by providing: More direct routes (dual or parallel) Bypass routes for high-density terminal areas Alternative or contingency routes (planned or an ad hoc) Optimum locations for holding patterns Optimized feeder routes Reduction in flight distances resulting in fuel savings Reduction in the number of ground navigation facilities 15 Source: EUROCONTROL PBN – RNP 10 “EN ROUTE” © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) OCEANIC & REMOTE AREAS Description: Reduced lateral separation 50 nm between aircraft Denser traffic capacity over oceanic and remote area due to: Reduced separation between aircraft Primarily for RNAV routes but permitted on nonRNAV routes in some areas Possible time & fuel savings Word areas with “50 NM” lateral separation reduction benefits: North Pacific (NOPAC) West Atlantic Route System (WATRS) and parts of the San Juan and Miami Oceanic Control Areas Many more worldwide Note: Operational approval required © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) 16 Source: EUROCONTROL & FAA PBN – RNP 4 “EN ROUTE” (FANS 1/A EQPT) © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) OCEANIC & REMOTE AREAS Description: Reduced separation 30/30 nm between aircraft thru enhanced communication with ATC Increased airspace capacity and fuel efficient route access due to: Reduced separation between aircraft Access to upcoming RNP 4 dedicated routes No altitude loss when crossing to other aircraft tracks More efficient ATC to pilot communication thru SATCOM CPDLC Required to fly FL360-390 North- Atl. OTS tracks since Feb 2013 (except for 2 Core Tracks) RNP 4 dedicated tracks and region coverage are planned to increase in Feb 2015 CDU Image © Rockwell Collins, Inc. Note: Operational approval required © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) 17 Source: EUROCONTROL & FAA LINK 2000+ EUROCONTROL MANDATE Description: CPDLC (through VDL mode 2) supplementing voice communication between pilots and ATCs Required to fly in European airspace above FL285 in Feb 2013 (new aircraft)1 or Feb 2015 (in-service aircraft)2 Increased communication efficiency and reduced pilot workload Will increase European airspace air traffic management (ATM) capacity by automating routine tasks whilst improving safety CDU Image © Rockwell Collins, Inc. (1) A/C certificate of airworthiness after Dec 2010 (2) A/C certificate of airworthiness prior to Jan 2011 18 Source: EUROCONTROL BOMBARDIER CONFIDENTIAL FANS 1/A+ VS LINK 2000+ (1 OF 2) FANS 1/A+ ADS-C & SATCOM CPDLC VDL mode 2 CPDLC Primarily for oceanic & remote airspace navigation (RNP 4 Ops) En route continental Europe (above FL 285) Inmarsat or Iridium safety services communication No service providers required for VHF Datalink communication Interfaces with FMS for flight plan modifications vs No FMS interface for flight plan modifications 183 uplinks & 81 downlinks message set 63 uplinks & 26 downlinks message set FANS 1/A+(1) includes VHF coverage (+) Link 2000+ CPDLC is a subset of the larger ATN message set RNP 4 Ops approval required 19 LINK 2000+ Source: EUROCONTROL (1) Permanent EUROCONTROL Link2000+ equipage exemption can be obtained if FANS 1/A+ is installed and if RNP 4 ops approval is obtained prior to Jan 2014 FANS 1/A+ VS LINK 2000+ (2 OF 2) MESSAGES SET DIFFERENCES FANS 1/A+ LINK 2000+ Um 20* : CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN [altitude] To communicate an equivalent message on Link 2000+: um 20 : + um 165 : + um 19 : CLIMB TO [level] THEN MAINTAIN [level] vs CDU Image © Rockwell Collins, Inc. CDU Image © Rockwell Collins, Inc. Equivalent messages set (not exactly the same) but different procedures (*) UM :Uplink Message (from ATC to pilot) 20 PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION RNAV (GNSS)/(RNP) APPROACHES & BENEFITS ANNUAL CONFERENCE MARCH 12, 2013 21 RNAV (GNSS) APPROACHES ≥ 350 ft MDA ≥ 400 ft MDA 22 LNAV – NON-PRECISION APPROACH (NPA) LATERAL NAVIGATION (LNAV) Description: GNSS approach that uses GPS and/or EGNOS for lateral navigation only with no descent guidance – Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) down to 400 ft typically Alternative to other NPA’s using conventional NAVAIDs such as: Localizer VOR – VHF Omnidirectional Range NDB – Non-Directional Beacon DME – Distance Measuring Equipment MDA = 630 ft Etc… No dependence on any airport NAVAIDs Access to airports without or inoperative NAVAID infrastructures 23 Sources: EUROCONTROL and UK NATS AIS LNAV/VNAV – NPA APPROACH LATERAL/VERTICAL NAVIGATION (LNAV/VNAV) Description: GNSS approach with lateral GPS and/or EGNOS guidance and vertical guidance from barometric altimeter – typical Decision Altitude (DA) down to 350 ft DA = 510 ft 24 Sources: EUROCONTROL and UK NATS AIS Same benefits as LNAV approaches DA typically slightly lower than LNAV MDA due to added vertical guidance LP – NPA APPROACH LOCALIZER PERFORMANCE (LP) Description: GNSS NPA approach uses the EGNOS precision of LPV for lateral guidance (tapered) and barometric altimeter data for vertical guidance. MDA can be as low as 300 ft MDA = 436 ft 25 Source: EUROCONTROL & NAVAIR.com An alternative to LPV or LNAV approaches Provides better airport access where, due to obstacles or other infrastructure limitations, a vertically guided approach (LPV or LNAV/VNAV) can not be published LPV – PRECISION APPROACH LOCALIZER PERFORMANCE WITH VERTICAL GUIDANCE (LPV) Description: GNSS precision approach with electronic glide path using EGNOS lateral (40m lateral limit) & vertical guidance. Decision Altitude (DA) can be as low as 200-300 ft Alternative to Cat I approaches No dependence on any airport NAVAIDs Precision approach capability at airports without ILS infrastructures or with ILS inoperative Smoother glide path descent than ILS EGNOS usage eliminates: Cold temperature effects Incorrect altimeter settings Lack of local altimeter source DA = 590 ft 26 Sources: EUROCONTROL and UK NATS AIS RNP AR (0.3 OR < 0.3) – APPROACH REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP) AUTHORIZATION REQUIRED (AR) Description: GNSS approach procedure that requires maintaining a specific lateral & vertical accuracy Operators need to comply with specified additional certification, approval and training requirements Better access to terrain challenged airports and/or in congested airspace area Efficiency of operations (faster landing clearance) Shorter routes & fuel savings Typically continuous descent approaches Departure procedures at higher MTOW at airports with challenging terrain Note: Operational approval required © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) © Bombardier Inc. (All Rights Reserved) 27 Source: EUROCONTROL INNSBRUCK – RNP AR 0.3 & 0.15 APPROACHES RNAV (RNP) – INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHART (IAC) RNP 0.15 has a DA 100 ft lower than RNP 0.3 28 Source: Austro Control AIP Minimum equipment/ conditions to execute the approach INNSBRUCK – RNP AR 0.3 DEPARTURE RNAV (RNP) – STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE CHART (SID) RNP 0.3 SID procedure Minimum equipment/conditions to execute the departure 29 Source: Austro Control AIP OPS APPROVAL INFO AVAILABLE OPERATIONAL APPROVAL GUIDANCE MATERIAL P-NAV: Form SRG1815 – Application for P-RNAV Operational Approval or Renewal RNP 10: Form CA4040 – Application for an RVSM, MNPS or RNP-10 Operational Approval/ Renewal & RNP 4: EASA AMC to be developed Meanwhile, Application for EASA Type 2 LoA using JAA PP045 Information Paper (RNP 4) for guidance RNAV (RNP) approaches & SIDs: Application for EASA Type 2 LoA per AMC 2026 (Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria for RNP AR Operations) 30 VISION FLIGHT DECK PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION RNAV (GNSS)/(RNP) APPROACHES WORLDWIDE DEPLOYMENT ANNUAL CONFERENCE MARCH 12, 2013 31 RNAV (GPS)/(RNP) APPROACHES 32 In Service Future Plans Type In Service Future Plans LPV 52 180 LPV 124 41+ LP 0 TBD LP 0 TBD LNAV 600 TBD LNAV 196 96+ LNAV/VNAV 23 TBD LNAV/VNAV 98 TBD RNP AR 22 TBD RNP AR 7 TBD Type In Service Future Plans Type In Service Future Plans LPV 3,055 ~70/yr LPV 0 TBD LP 413 ~35/yr LP 0 TBD LNAV 5,619 ~2/yr LNAV 22 TBD LNAV/VNAV 2,939 ~35/yr LNAV/VNAV 32 TBD RNP AR 354 ~40/yr RNP AR 8 TBD Type In Service Future Plans Type In Service Future Plans LPV 0 TBD LPV 0 TBD LP 0 TBD LP 0 TBD LNAV 146 179+ LNAV 554 TBD LNAV/VNAV 45 171+ LNAV/VNAV 82 TBD RNP AR 22 TBD RNP AR 42 TBD Middle-East Europe Type Asia Latin America USA Canada PUBLISHED PROCEDURES WORLDWIDE DEPLOYMENT INFO Sources: EUROCONTROL, ESSP, ICAO, FAA, GE Aviation, Honeywell & 25+ Countries AIP RNAV (GPS)/(RNP) APPROACHES EUROPEAN PUBLISHED PROCEDURES DEPLOYMENT BREAKDOWN Airports with LPV procedures More Active European Countries LPV LP LNAV LNAV/VNAV RNP AR I-S F-P I-S F-P I-S F-P I-S F-P I-S F-P United Kingdom 2 15 0 TBD 22 17+ 8 5+ 0 TBD France 27 14 0 TBD 80 20/yr 1 TBD 0 TBD Germany 90 7 0 TBD 82 TBD 82 TBD 0 TBD Switzerland 2 TBD 0 TBD 1 TBD 1 TBD 0 TBD Italy 3 TBD 0 TBD 1 TBD 0 TBD 0 TBD Spain 0 5 0 TBD 0 TBD 0 TBD 0 TBD Austria 0 TBD 0 TBD 8 TBD 6 TBD 3 TBD Sweden 0 TBD 0 TBD 0 57+ 0 TBD 4 TBD Portugal 0 TBD 0 TBD 2 TBD 0 TBD 0 TBD Total 124 41+ 0 TBD 196 96+ 98 5+ 7 TBD Legend: I-S= In Service F-P= Future Plans 33 Sources: ESSP, EUROCONTROL & UK NATS AIS PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved. ? Q&A PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.