Mindanao By: Calagan, Karl Khumo Balmeo, Francesca Gabriele De Castro, Lebby Dela Cruz, Hannah Nicole Florendo, Elaine Joy Mindanao Demographics History Culture Music Influences in Today’s Music Mindanao Demographics Mindanao : Demographics Mindanao is the second largest island in the country the country at 94 630 square kilometers, and is the eighth most populous island in the world. The island of Mindanao is larger than 125 countries worldwide, including the Netherlands and Taiwan. Mindanao : Demographics The island is mountainous, and is home to Mt. Apo, the highest mountain in the country. Mindanao is surrounded by seas: Sulu Sea to the West, the Philippine Sea to the East, and the Celebes Sea to the South. Mindanao : Demographics The island group of Mindanao encompasses Mindanao Island itself and the Sulu Archipelago to the Southwest. The island group is divided into six regions [ Zamboanga Peninsula – Region IX , Northern Mindanao – Region X , Davao Region – Region XI , SOCCSKSARGEN – Region XII , Caraga – Region XIII , and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ARMM ] and was further subdivided into 26 provinces. Mindanao : Demographics Of all the islands of the Philippines, Mindanao shows the greatest variety of physiographic development. High, rugged, faulted mountains; almost isolated volcanic peaks; high rolling plateaus; and broad, level, swampy plains are found here. Mindanao : Demographics Mindanao Maps Mindanao : Demographics Mount Apo DidYouKnow? Mount Apo stands at 9 692 feet (2 954 m) above sea level. Mindanao Demographics History Culture Music Influences in Today’s Music History of Mindanao Mindanao : History Mindanao is named after the Maguindanaons who constituted the largest Sultanate historically, and evidence from maps made during the 17th and 18th centuries suggests that the name was used to refer to the island by natives at the time. Mindanao : History An Old Spanish Map of Mindanao Island Mindanao : History Evidence of human occupation dates back tens of thousands of years. In prehistoric times the Negrito people arrived. Sometime around 1500 BC Austronesian Peoples spread throughout the Philippines and far beyond. Mindanao : History Negrito – a class of several ethnic groups that inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia. Mindanao : History Islam first spread to the region during the 13th century through Arab traders from present-day Malaysia and Indonesia. Prior to this contact, the inhabitants of the area were primarily animists living in small autonomous communities. Mindanao : History Is·lam noun \is-ˈläm, iz-, -ˈlam, ˈis-ˌ, ˈiz-ˌ\ : the religious faith of Muslims including belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Muhammad as his prophet Islam was spread in the Philippines by Mudum, Raja Baginda, Abu Bakr, and Serif Kabungsuan. Mindanao : History Today, the region is home to most of the country's Muslim or Moro populations, composed of many ethnic groups such as the Maranao and the Tausug, the Banguingui , as well as the collective group of indigenous tribes known as the Lumad. Mindanao : History The MARANAO ~ Maranao is the term used for the people of Lanao, a predominantly Muslim region in the Philippine island of Mindanao. Mindanao : History Today, the region is home to most of the country's Muslim or Moro populations, composed of many ethnic groups such as the Maranao and the Tausug, the Banguingui (users of the vinta), as well as the collective group of indigenous tribes known as the Lumad. The TAUSUG Mindanao : History ~ The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of Sulu and Malaysia. The term Tausūg was derived from two words tao and sūg (or suluk) meaning "people of the current", referring to their homelands in the Sulu Archipelago. Mindanao : History Today, the region is home to most of the country's Muslim or Moro populations, composed of many ethnic groups such as the Maranao and the Tausug, the Banguingui (users of the vinta), as well as the collective group of indigenous tribes known as the Lumad. Mindanao : History The Banguingui ~ Banguingui is a distinct ethno-linguistic group dispersed throughout the Greater Sulu Archipelago and southern and western coastal regions of the Zamboanga Peninsula in Mindanao. Mindanao : History Today, the region is home to most of the country's Muslim or Moro populations, composed of many ethnic groups such as the Maranao and the Tausug, the Banguingui (users of the vinta), as well as the collective group of indigenous tribes known as the Lumad. Mindanao : History The LUMAD ~ The Lumad is a term being used to denote a group of indigenous peoples of the southern Philippines. Mindanao Demographics History Culture Music Influences in Today’s Music Mindanao Culture LANGUAGE Mindanao : Culture Cebuano is spoken by the majority of people in Mindanao. Cebuano is generally the native language in most regions, except for the Muslim areas on the west coast and among the hill tribes. FOOD Mindanao : Culture The Mindanao Cuisine is highly unique and very delicious, indeed. Zamboanga Satti Kiyoning Coconut Milk FOOD Mindanao : Culture One of the most common ingredients used by Mindanao people in their daily food preparations is coconut milk. Aside from the fact that coconut is abundant in the region, it also adds a distinctive taste. FOOD Mindanao : Culture For the Maranaos, the wellknown kiyoning or yellow rice is made by mixing rice, coconut milk and powdered kalawag (turmeric). FOOD Mindanao : Culture Turmeric is a herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. FOOD Mindanao : Culture Satti is actually a breakfast meal to the locals of Zamboanga. While it is similar to the regular Barbeque, Satti only has at most 3 small strips of roasted meats on a stick. The meat can be any from beef, pork, liver, or chicken. This is best paired with rice, preferably sticky and sweet and spicy sauce. LITERATURE Mindanao : Culture Mindanao people also developed great literature that could be compared with the literature of others. Some of the famous writers are Margarita Morfi, who wrote “Fractional Lives”, and Hope S. Sabanpan-Yu who wrote “Kulokabildo”. LITERATURE Mindanao : Culture Moro literature embraces the whole range of oral and written expression of Moro culture, including religious and ritual literature, folk literature such as legends, myths, epics and folktales, and the symbolic speech of courtship, proverbs, and riddles. Poems, songs, and ballads are also included. LITERATURE Mindanao : Culture Examples of some oral and written literature in Mindanao are: Hadis - Hadis is a Tausug religious oral literature on locally produced commentaries on specific items of Muslim tradition and jurisprudence. Daranganen - (epic poetry) may be the best known poetic narrative of the Maranao. It consists of 25 episodes about Prince Bantugen, a godlike hero embodying physical prowess, beauty and intelligence. LITERATURE Mindanao : Culture Stories and symbolic speeches such as riddles, proverbs, courtship dialogues and love spells are part of the literary expression of some Moro groups. Stories, like “The Red Star of Islam,” seek to edify Muslims as they remember fellow Muslims suffering in communist Russia. ART Mindanao : Culture We can say that Mindanao Art is very expressive. This is evident in the very beautiful colors and patterns every work of art contains. ART Mindanao : Culture Okir or okkil refers to the range of folk motifs, usually of plants and geometric forms, that are prominent in Maranao art work. ART Mindanao : Culture Yakan is a unique cultural group of Sulu living on Basilan Island south of Zamboanga. On backstrap looms they turn fine cotton and silks into remarkable geometric work of art. ART Mindanao : Culture In imitating the metal art works of the Moros (Muslim Warriors), the Bagobo tribe has produced an ornate tradition in weaponry, and inlaid, bell-jangled metal boxes. The Bagobo also weave abaca cloths of ruddy earth tones, and weave baskets. Mindanao Demographics History Culture Music Influences in Today’s Music Mindanao : MUSIC Music and Dance of the Mindanao is very lively and unique. They use these as entertainment and leisure. We are also entertained by their music especially when they perform them in various plays and festivities. Mindanao : MUSIC Here is an example of Mindanao Music and Dance Mindanao : MUSIC S T O P Mindanao Musical Instruments Mindanao : MUSIC They used various instruments to create these wonderful music. Let’s now find out what they are. GO ! Mindanao : MUSIC Kulintang Kulintang a kayo Agung Gandingan a kayo Gandingan Kubing Babendil Kulintang a tiniok Dabakan Agung a Tamlang Mindanao : MUSIC Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental form of music composed on a row of small, horizontally-laid gongs that function melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended gongs and drums. Mindanao : MUSIC As part of the culture of Southeast Asia, kulintang music ensembles have been playing for many centuries in regions of the Eastern Malay Archipelago — the Southern Philippines, Eastern Indonesia, Eastern Malaysia, Brunei and Timor. The Kulintang consists of a row/set of 5 to 9 graduated pot gongs, horizontally laid upon a frame arranged in order of pitch with the lowest gong found on the players’ left. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The kubing is a type of Philippine jaw harp from bamboo found among the Maguindanaon and other Muslim and non-Muslim tribes in the Philippines and Indonesia. Mindanao : MUSIC The Kubing is traditionally considered an intimate instrument, usually used as communication between family or a love one in close quarters. Both genders can use the instrument, the females more infrequently than males who use it for short distance courtship. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The agung is a set of two wide-rimmed, vertically-suspended gongs used by the Maguindanao, Maranao and Tausug people of the Philippines as a supportive instrument in kulintang ensembles. Mindanao : MUSIC The agung is a large, heavy, widerimmed gong shaped like a kettle gong. The agung produces a bass sound in the kulintang orchestra and weighs between 11 and 15 pounds. They are hung vertically above the floor at or a bit below the waist line, suspended by ropes fastened to structures like strong tree limb, beam of a house, ceiling, or gong stand. Mindanao : MUSIC The larger, lower pitched gong of the two is called the pangandungan by the Maguindanao and and the p'nanggisa-an by the Maranao. Played on the musician's right, it provides the main part, which it predominantly played on the accents of the rhythmic structure. The smaller, higher pitched gong, the thicker of the two, is called the panentekan by the Maguindanao and the pumalsan by the Maranao. Found on the player’s left, it is mainly played on the weaker double and triple beats of the rhythmic structure, in counterpoint to the pangandungan's part. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The gandingan is a Philippine set of four large, hanging gongs used by the Maguindanao as part of their kulintang ensemble. Mindanao : MUSIC The instrument is usually described as four, large, shallow-bossed, thin-rimmed gongs, vertically hung, either from a strong support such as a tree limb or housed in a strong wooden framed stand. The gongs are arranged in graduated fashion in pairs with knobs of the lower-pitched gongs facing each other and the higher-pitched gongs doing the same. Normally, the lowerpitched gongs would be situated on the left side and the higher pitched gongs on the right side of the player if he/she were righthanded. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The babendil is a single, narrow-rimmed Philippine gong used primary as the “timekeeper” of the Maguindanao kulintang ensemble. Mindanao : MUSIC The babendil usually has a diameter of roughly one foot making it larger than the largest kulintang gong and comparable to the diameter of the agung or gandingan. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The dabakan is a single-headed Philippine drum, primarily used as a supportive instrument in the kulintang ensemble. Among the five main kulintang instruments, it is the only non-gong element of the Maguindanao ensemble. Mindanao : MUSIC The dabakan is frequently described as either hour-glass, conical, tubular, or goblet in shape. Normally, the dabakan is found having a length of more than two feet and a diameter of more than a foot about the widest part of the shell. Mindanao : MUSIC The shell is carved from wood either out of the trunk of a coconut tree or the wood of a jackfruit tree which is then hollowed out throughout its body and stem. Mindanao : MUSIC NOTE THIS : The following instruments are part of the Maguindanao Kulintang Ensemble: 1.] Kulintang 2.] Agung 3.] Gandingan 4.] Babendil 5.] Dabakan BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The kulintang a kayo (literally, “wooden kulintang”) is a Philippine xylophone of the Maguindanaon people with eight tuned slabs arranged horizontally atop a wooden antangan (rack). Mindanao : MUSIC Made of soft wood, the kulintang a kayo is a common found among Maguindanaon households with a musical background. Traditionally, it was used for self-entertainment purpose inside the house, so beginners could practice kulintang pieces before performing them on the real kulintang. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The gandingan a kayo (translated means, “wooden gandingan,” or “gandingan made of wood”) is a Philippine xylophone and considered the wooden version of the real gandingan. Mindanao : MUSIC This instrument is a relatively new instrument coming of age due to the increasing popularity of the “wooden kulintang ensemble”. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC Also called kulintang a putao (Maguindanaon), the kulintang a tiniok is a type of Philippine metallophone with eight tuned knobbed metal plates strung together via string atop a wooden antangan (rack). Kulintang a tiniok is a Maguindanaon term meaning “kulintang with string” PRESENTATION > Mindanao : MUSIC S T O P Mindanao : MUSIC They also could call them kulintang a putao, meaning “kulintang of metal.” The Maranao refer to this instrument as a sarunay (or salunay, salonay), terminology which has become popular for this instrument in America. This is considered a relatively recent instrument and surprisingly many of them are only made of tin-can. BACK Mindanao : MUSIC The Agung a Tamlang is a type of Philippine slit drum made of hollowed out bamboo in imitation of the real agung. Pitch is determined by the length and depth of the slit. Mindanao : MUSIC A slit drum is a hollow percussion instrument, usually a log drum of bamboo or wood, that is made one or more slits in it. Mindanao : MUSIC The agung a tamlang is used as practice for the real agung: players either use either one agung a tamlang (hold it with one hand and using the other to strike it with a beater) or using two agung a tamlangs where the other agung is held with one’s feet. NEXT Mindanao Dances Mindanao : MUSIC Like their brothers from central and northern Philippines, Filipinos in the South are avid lovers of dance. The dances, particularly of the Maguindanao, the Maranao, and the Taosug, are largely ceremonial and are often accompanied by percussion instruments such as gongs and drums. Mindanao : MUSIC Kandingan Lunsay Sagayan Singkil Pangalay Tahing Baila Mindanao : MUSIC Kandingan is a Moro wedding dance. When the natives from Jolo perform this dance, no definite number of steps, no sequence of figures, no lines of directions and no particular feet and arm movements are incorporated. The barefoot dancers are dressed in typical Joloano costume. Mindanao : MUSIC Singkil (or Sayaw sa Kasingkil) is a famous dance of the Maranao people of Lake Lanao, which was popularized by the Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company. Mindanao : MUSIC Sagayan is a Philippine war dance performed by both the Maguindanao and Maranao depicting in dramatic fashion the steps their hero, Prince Bantugan, took upon wearing his armaments, the war he fought in and his subsequent victory afterwards. Performers, depicting fierce warriors would carry shield with shell noisemakers in one hand and double-bladed sword in the other attempting rolling movements to defend their master. Mindanao : MUSIC The Tahing Baila is a Yakan dance in which the motions of fish are mimicked. Mindanao : MUSIC Pangalay (also known as Daling-Daling or Mengalai in Sabah) in is the traditional “fingernail” dance of the Tausūg people of the Sulu Archipelago and Sabah. This dance is the most distinctively Asian of all the Southern Philippine dances because dancers must have dexterity and flexibility of the shoulders, elbows, and wrists – movements that strongly resemble those of “kontaw silat,” a martial art common in the Malay Archipelago. Mindanao : MUSIC Lunsay is a song-dance performed by the Jama Mapun people of Cagayan de Sulu and Tawi-tawi. Male and female performers hold hands in a single file and go through serpentine, circular and wavelike patterns following the hand movement and the direction of an appointed leader. The male dancer next to a female dancer must not hold bare hands with the female dancer, instead, a handkerchief is used for the female dancer to hold. Mindanao Demographics History Culture Music Influences to Today’s Music Influence to Music Mindanao : MUSIC Influences With all these information, the region’s Music or Mindanao in general, had an impact on the world of music a lot. Just as other creators of music, they have created different types of instruments, and their dances have become part of other people’s culture. Mindanao : MUSIC Influences Mindanao music certainly has been popular in the Philippines, in fact the musical instruments that are known by those who are inexperienced in such field know instruments that are from Mindanao. Mindanao The End Thank you Mindanao : MUSIC Stay Tuned for our Cebuano Sayawit Presentation in the coming days! Thank You!