Calagan, Karl Khumo
Balmeo, Francesca Gabriele
De Castro, Lebby
Dela Cruz, Hannah Nicole
Florendo, Elaine Joy
Influences in Today’s Music
Mindanao : Demographics
Mindanao is the second largest island in
the country the country at 94 630
square kilometers, and is the eighth
most populous island in the world. The
island of Mindanao is larger than 125
countries worldwide, including the
Netherlands and Taiwan.
Mindanao : Demographics
The island is mountainous, and is home
to Mt. Apo, the highest mountain in the
Mindanao is surrounded by seas: Sulu
Sea to the West, the Philippine Sea to
the East, and the Celebes Sea to the
Mindanao : Demographics
The island group of Mindanao encompasses
Mindanao Island itself and the Sulu
Archipelago to the Southwest. The island
group is divided into six regions
[ Zamboanga Peninsula – Region IX ,
Northern Mindanao – Region X , Davao
Region – Region XI , SOCCSKSARGEN –
Region XII , Caraga – Region XIII , and
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
ARMM ] and was further subdivided into 26
Mindanao : Demographics
Of all the islands of the Philippines,
Mindanao shows the greatest variety
of physiographic development. High,
rugged, faulted mountains; almost
isolated volcanic peaks; high rolling
plateaus; and broad, level, swampy
plains are found here.
Mindanao : Demographics
Mindanao Maps
Mindanao : Demographics
Mount Apo
DidYouKnow? Mount Apo stands at 9 692 feet (2 954 m) above sea level.
Influences in Today’s Music
History of
Mindanao : History
Mindanao is named after the
Maguindanaons who constituted the
largest Sultanate historically, and
evidence from maps made during the
17th and 18th centuries suggests that
the name was used to refer to the
island by natives at the time.
Mindanao : History
An Old Spanish Map of Mindanao Island
Mindanao : History
Evidence of human occupation dates
back tens of thousands of years. In
prehistoric times the Negrito people
arrived. Sometime around 1500 BC
Austronesian Peoples spread
throughout the Philippines and far
Mindanao : History
Negrito – a class of several ethnic groups
that inhabit isolated parts of Southeast
Mindanao : History
Islam first spread to the region during the
13th century through Arab traders from
present-day Malaysia and Indonesia.
Prior to this contact, the inhabitants of
the area were primarily animists living
in small autonomous communities.
Mindanao : History
noun \is-ˈläm, iz-, -ˈlam, ˈis-ˌ, ˈiz-ˌ\
: the religious faith of Muslims including
belief in Allah as the sole deity and in
Muhammad as his prophet
Islam was spread in the Philippines by
Mudum, Raja Baginda, Abu Bakr, and
Serif Kabungsuan.
Mindanao : History
Today, the region is home to most of the
country's Muslim or Moro populations,
composed of many ethnic groups
such as the Maranao and the Tausug,
the Banguingui , as well as the
collective group of indigenous tribes
known as the Lumad.
Mindanao : History
~ Maranao is the
term used for the
people of Lanao,
a predominantly
Muslim region in
the Philippine
island of Mindanao.
Mindanao : History
Today, the region is home to most of the
country's Muslim or Moro populations,
composed of many ethnic groups
such as the Maranao and the Tausug,
the Banguingui (users of the vinta), as
well as the collective group of
indigenous tribes known as the Lumad.
Mindanao : History
~ The Tausūg or
Suluk people are an
ethnic group of Sulu
and Malaysia. The
term Tausūg was
derived from two
words tao and sūg
(or suluk) meaning
"people of the current",
referring to their homelands in the Sulu Archipelago.
Mindanao : History
Today, the region is home to most of the
country's Muslim or Moro populations,
composed of many ethnic groups
such as the Maranao and the Tausug,
the Banguingui (users of the vinta), as
well as the collective group of
indigenous tribes known as the Lumad.
Mindanao : History
The Banguingui
~ Banguingui is a distinct ethno-linguistic
group dispersed throughout the
Greater Sulu Archipelago and
southern and western coastal regions
of the Zamboanga Peninsula in
Mindanao : History
Today, the region is home to most of the
country's Muslim or Moro populations,
composed of many ethnic groups
such as the Maranao and the Tausug,
the Banguingui (users of the vinta), as
well as the collective group of
indigenous tribes known as the Lumad.
Mindanao : History
~ The Lumad is
a term being
used to denote
a group of indigenous peoples
of the southern
Influences in Today’s Music
Mindanao : Culture
Cebuano is spoken by the majority of
people in Mindanao. Cebuano is
generally the native language in most
regions, except for the Muslim areas on
the west coast and among the hill
Mindanao : Culture
The Mindanao Cuisine is highly unique and
very delicious, indeed.
Zamboanga Satti
Coconut Milk
Mindanao : Culture
One of the most common ingredients
used by Mindanao people in their
daily food preparations is coconut
milk. Aside from the fact that coconut
is abundant in the region, it also adds
a distinctive taste.
Mindanao : Culture
For the Maranaos, the wellknown kiyoning or yellow rice is made
by mixing rice, coconut milk and
powdered kalawag (turmeric).
Mindanao : Culture
Turmeric is a herbaceous perennial plant
of the ginger family.
Mindanao : Culture
Satti is actually a breakfast meal to the locals
of Zamboanga. While it is similar to the
regular Barbeque, Satti only has at most 3
small strips of roasted meats on a stick. The
meat can be any from beef, pork, liver, or
chicken. This is best paired with rice,
preferably sticky and sweet and spicy
Mindanao : Culture
Mindanao people also developed great
literature that could be compared
with the literature of others. Some of
the famous writers are Margarita Morfi,
who wrote “Fractional Lives”, and
Hope S. Sabanpan-Yu who wrote
Mindanao : Culture
Moro literature embraces the whole
range of oral and written expression of
Moro culture, including religious and
ritual literature, folk literature such as
legends, myths, epics and folktales, and
the symbolic speech of courtship,
proverbs, and riddles. Poems, songs,
and ballads are also included.
Mindanao : Culture
Examples of some oral and written literature in
Mindanao are:
Hadis - Hadis is a Tausug religious oral literature
on locally produced commentaries on specific
items of Muslim tradition and jurisprudence.
Daranganen - (epic poetry) may be the best
known poetic narrative of the Maranao. It
consists of 25 episodes about Prince Bantugen,
a godlike hero embodying physical prowess,
beauty and intelligence.
Mindanao : Culture
Stories and symbolic speeches such as
riddles, proverbs, courtship dialogues
and love spells are part of the literary
expression of some Moro groups.
Stories, like “The Red Star of Islam,” seek
to edify Muslims as they remember
fellow Muslims suffering in communist
Mindanao : Culture
We can say that Mindanao Art is very
expressive. This is evident in the very
beautiful colors and patterns every
work of art contains.
Mindanao : Culture
Okir or okkil refers to the range of folk
motifs, usually of plants and geometric
forms, that are prominent in Maranao
art work.
Mindanao : Culture
Yakan is a unique cultural group of Sulu living
on Basilan Island south of Zamboanga. On
backstrap looms they turn fine cotton and
silks into remarkable geometric work of art.
Mindanao : Culture
In imitating the metal art works of the
Moros (Muslim Warriors), the Bagobo
tribe has produced an ornate tradition
in weaponry, and inlaid, bell-jangled
metal boxes. The Bagobo also weave
abaca cloths of ruddy earth tones, and
weave baskets.
Influences in Today’s Music
Mindanao : MUSIC
Music and Dance of the Mindanao is
very lively and unique. They use these
as entertainment and leisure. We are
also entertained by their music
especially when they perform them in
various plays and festivities.
Mindanao : MUSIC
Here is an example of Mindanao
Music and Dance
Mindanao : MUSIC
Musical Instruments
Mindanao : MUSIC
They used various instruments to create
these wonderful music. Let’s now find
out what they are.
GO !
Mindanao : MUSIC
Kulintang a kayo
Gandingan a kayo
Kulintang a tiniok
Agung a Tamlang
Mindanao : MUSIC
Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental form of
music composed on a row of small, horizontally-laid gongs
that function melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended
gongs and drums.
Mindanao : MUSIC
As part of the culture of Southeast Asia,
kulintang music ensembles have been
playing for many centuries in regions of
the Eastern Malay Archipelago — the
Southern Philippines, Eastern Indonesia,
Eastern Malaysia, Brunei and Timor.
The Kulintang consists of a row/set of 5 to 9
graduated pot gongs, horizontally laid
upon a frame arranged in order of pitch
with the lowest gong found on the
players’ left.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The kubing is a type of Philippine jaw harp from bamboo found
among the Maguindanaon and other Muslim and non-Muslim
tribes in the Philippines and Indonesia.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The Kubing is traditionally considered an
intimate instrument, usually used as
communication between family or a
love one in close quarters. Both
genders can use the instrument, the
females more infrequently than males
who use it for short distance courtship.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The agung is a set of two wide-rimmed, vertically-suspended
gongs used by the Maguindanao, Maranao and Tausug
people of the Philippines as a supportive instrument in
kulintang ensembles.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The agung is a large, heavy, widerimmed gong shaped like a kettle
gong. The agung produces a bass
sound in the kulintang orchestra and
weighs between 11 and 15 pounds.
They are hung vertically above the floor
at or a bit below the waist line,
suspended by ropes fastened to
structures like strong tree limb, beam of
a house, ceiling, or gong stand.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The larger, lower pitched gong of the two is called the
pangandungan by the Maguindanao and and the
p'nanggisa-an by the Maranao. Played on the
musician's right, it provides the main part, which it
predominantly played on the accents of the
rhythmic structure.
The smaller, higher pitched gong, the thicker of the two,
is called the panentekan by the Maguindanao and
the pumalsan by the Maranao. Found on the player’s
left, it is mainly played on the weaker double and
triple beats of the rhythmic structure, in counterpoint
to the pangandungan's part.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The gandingan is a Philippine set of four large,
hanging gongs used by the Maguindanao as part
of their kulintang ensemble.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The instrument is usually described as four, large,
shallow-bossed, thin-rimmed gongs, vertically
hung, either from a strong support such as a
tree limb or housed in a strong wooden
framed stand.
The gongs are arranged in graduated fashion in
pairs with knobs of the lower-pitched gongs
facing each other and the higher-pitched
gongs doing the same. Normally, the lowerpitched gongs would be situated on the left
side and the higher pitched gongs on the
right side of the player if he/she were righthanded.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The babendil is a single, narrow-rimmed Philippine
gong used primary as the “timekeeper” of the
Maguindanao kulintang ensemble.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The babendil usually has a diameter of
roughly one foot making it larger than
the largest kulintang gong and
comparable to the diameter of the
agung or gandingan.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The dabakan is a single-headed Philippine drum, primarily used
as a supportive instrument in the kulintang ensemble. Among
the five main kulintang instruments, it is the only non-gong
element of the Maguindanao ensemble.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The dabakan is frequently described as
either hour-glass, conical, tubular, or
goblet in shape. Normally, the
dabakan is found having a length of
more than two feet and a diameter of
more than a foot about the widest
part of the shell.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The shell is carved from wood either out
of the trunk of a coconut tree or the
wood of a jackfruit tree which is then
hollowed out throughout its body and
Mindanao : MUSIC
The following instruments are part of the
Maguindanao Kulintang Ensemble:
1.] Kulintang
2.] Agung
3.] Gandingan
4.] Babendil
5.] Dabakan
Mindanao : MUSIC
The kulintang a kayo (literally, “wooden kulintang”) is a Philippine
xylophone of the Maguindanaon people with eight tuned
slabs arranged horizontally atop a wooden antangan (rack).
Mindanao : MUSIC
Made of soft wood, the kulintang a kayo
is a common found among
Maguindanaon households with a
musical background. Traditionally, it
was used for self-entertainment
purpose inside the house, so beginners
could practice kulintang pieces before
performing them on the real kulintang.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The gandingan a kayo (translated means, “wooden gandingan,”
or “gandingan made of wood”) is a Philippine xylophone and
considered the wooden version of the real gandingan.
Mindanao : MUSIC
This instrument is a relatively new
instrument coming of age due to the
increasing popularity of the “wooden
kulintang ensemble”.
Mindanao : MUSIC
Also called kulintang a putao (Maguindanaon), the
kulintang a tiniok is a type of Philippine metallophone
with eight tuned knobbed metal plates strung together
via string atop a wooden antangan (rack). Kulintang a
tiniok is a Maguindanaon term meaning “kulintang with
Mindanao : MUSIC
Mindanao : MUSIC
They also could call them kulintang a
putao, meaning “kulintang of metal.”
The Maranao refer to this instrument as
a sarunay (or salunay, salonay),
terminology which has become
popular for this instrument in America.
This is considered a relatively recent
instrument and surprisingly many of
them are only made of tin-can.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The Agung a Tamlang is a type of Philippine slit drum made of
hollowed out bamboo in imitation of the real agung. Pitch is
determined by the length and depth of the slit.
Mindanao : MUSIC
A slit drum is a hollow percussion
instrument, usually a log drum of
bamboo or wood, that is made one or
more slits in it.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The agung a tamlang is used as
practice for the real agung: players
either use either one agung a tamlang
(hold it with one hand and using the
other to strike it with a beater) or using
two agung a tamlangs where the
other agung is held with one’s feet.
Mindanao : MUSIC
Like their brothers from central and
northern Philippines, Filipinos in the
South are avid lovers of dance. The
dances, particularly of the
Maguindanao, the Maranao, and the
Taosug, are largely ceremonial
and are often accompanied by
percussion instruments such as gongs
and drums.
Mindanao : MUSIC
Tahing Baila
Mindanao : MUSIC
Kandingan is a Moro wedding dance.
When the natives from Jolo perform
this dance, no definite number of
steps, no sequence of figures, no lines
of directions and no particular feet
and arm movements are
incorporated. The barefoot dancers
are dressed in typical Joloano
Mindanao : MUSIC
Singkil (or Sayaw sa Kasingkil) is a
famous dance of the Maranao people
of Lake Lanao, which was popularized
by the Bayanihan Philippine National
Folk Dance Company.
Mindanao : MUSIC
Sagayan is a Philippine war dance performed
by both the Maguindanao and Maranao
depicting in dramatic fashion the steps their
hero, Prince Bantugan, took upon wearing
his armaments, the war he fought in and his
subsequent victory afterwards. Performers,
depicting fierce warriors would carry shield
with shell noisemakers in one hand and
double-bladed sword in the other
attempting rolling movements to defend
their master.
Mindanao : MUSIC
The Tahing Baila is a Yakan dance in
which the motions of fish are
Mindanao : MUSIC
Pangalay (also known as Daling-Daling or
Mengalai in Sabah) in is the traditional
“fingernail” dance of the Tausūg people of
the Sulu Archipelago and Sabah. This dance
is the most distinctively Asian of all the
Southern Philippine dances because
dancers must have dexterity and flexibility of
the shoulders, elbows, and wrists –
movements that strongly resemble those of
“kontaw silat,” a martial art common in the
Malay Archipelago.
Mindanao : MUSIC
Lunsay is a song-dance performed by the
Jama Mapun people of Cagayan de
Sulu and Tawi-tawi. Male and female
performers hold hands in a single file and
go through serpentine, circular and
wavelike patterns following the hand
movement and the direction of an
appointed leader. The male dancer next
to a female dancer must not hold bare
hands with the female dancer, instead, a
handkerchief is used for the female
dancer to hold.
Influences to Today’s Music
Influence to Music
Mindanao : MUSIC Influences
With all these information, the region’s
Music or Mindanao in general, had an
impact on the world of music a lot.
Just as other creators of music, they
have created different types of
instruments, and their dances have
become part of other people’s
Mindanao : MUSIC Influences
Mindanao music certainly has been
popular in the Philippines, in fact the
musical instruments that are known by
those who are inexperienced in such
field know instruments that are from
The End
Thank you
Mindanao : MUSIC
Stay Tuned for our
Cebuano Sayawit Presentation in the coming
Thank You!

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