Chapter 23, Section 3 lecture on Napoleon

Report
Section 3
 Explain
how Napoleon Bonaparte came
to power.
 Summarize how Napoleon restored order
in France
 Describe the extent and weaknesses of
Napoleon’s empire.
 Napoleon
was one of the greatest military
geniuses in history. He came from obscurity
in the French army to become the leader of
France from 1795-1799.
 Napoleon Seizes Power:
 Napoleon Bonaparte: born in 1769 on the
island of Corsica located on the
Mediterranean Sea. At age nine he was sent
to military school. By the time the
Revolution broke out he joined the army of
the new government.
 Hero
of the Hour:
 October, 1795: when royal rebels
marched on the National Convention,
Napoleon was told to defend the
delegates. Napoleon greeted the
royalists with cannon fire. The royalists
fled in panic and Napoleon became a
hero throughout Paris, saving the
republic.
 1796: the
Directory appointed Napoleon to
lead the French army against Austria and
the Kingdom of Sardinia.
• Crossed the Alps into Italy winning victories
• Napoleon went into Egypt to stop British trade with
India. In Egypt he was unable to achieve success.
• Napoleon was pinned down in Egypt by the Admiral
Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces.
• Even at this time Napoleon spun his story as a hero
and kept defeats out of the press.
 Coup
d’Etat: By 1799, the Directory was
losing control and the confidence of the
French people. (“blow to the state”)
 November, 1799: Napoleon decided to
seize political power of France. Troops
surrounded the national legislature and
drove the members out. Those members
who remained voted to dissolve the
Directory. They chose to establish a three
consul rule. Napoleon seized power known
as a coup.
 1799: Britain, Austria, and
Russia formed
an alliance to drive Napoleon out of
power. Napoleon led his troops out of
Paris, eventually all three nations out of
war and diplomacy signed a peace
agreement with France.
 1802: For the first time in ten years
Europe was at peace. Now Napoleon
could concentrate on restoring social
order in France.
In the beginning Napoleon pretended to
be a constitutionally chosen leader.
 1800: a vote of the people known as
Plebiscite, was held to approve a new
constitution.
 Restoring Order at Home: Napoleon
kept many of the changes of the
Revolution. He strengthened the central
government and achieve some of the
goals of the Revolution.

 Establishing
a Plan:
• Economy on solid footing, new method of tax
collection and established a national banking
system.
• Dismissed corrupt officials, established the
Lycrees: government run public schools. These
schools were open to male students no matter
the background. Graduates were appointed to
public office based on merit rather family
connections.
 Concordart:
or agreement with Pope
Pius VII. This established a new
relationship between church and state.
The government recognized the church
and the influence with the french people.
 Napoleonic Code: System of Laws and
eliminated injustices. It limited liberty
and promoted order and authority over
individual rights. Also, restored slavery
in the French colonies of the Caribbean.
December 2, 1804: Napoleon dressed in a
robe of purple velvet. He walked down
the aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in
Paris. The pope was waiting on him with
a crown, Napoleon took the crown from
the pope and placed it on his own head.
By doing this it showed he was more
powerful than the Church.
Loss of American Territories: The African colony
of Saint Domingue wanted their freedom from
slavery under the leadership of Toussaint
L’Ouverture.
 1801: Napoleon wanted to take back the colony
and restore the sugar industry. The French forces
were devastated by disease and the colonies
were fighters.
 Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the
Americas and offered to sell all the Louisiana
Territory to U.S. in 1803. President Jefferson
agreed to purchase the territory for 15 million
dollars.


Napoleon saw benefit in selling the territory;
• A. he gained money to finance operations in Europe.
• B. Punish the British, “The sale assures forever the power
of the United States.” he also mused “ and I have given
England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her
pride.”
• Conquering Europe: So far Napoleon had annexed
Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy and he had set up
a puppet government in Switzerland.
• Britain: convinced Russia, Austria, and Sweden to
alliance against France. Napoleon met the challenge and
he defeated the enemy. The enemy could not predict
what he would do next and took heavy losses.
 1805, Battle
of Austerlitz: Napoleon issued
a proclamation to his troops expressing
pride. The countries of Austria, Prussia,
and Russia to sign peace treaties.
France’s only major enemy left is Britain.
 1805: This
was the one major battle loss to
Napoleon. This battle took place of the
coast of Spain. British commander Horatio
Nelson was excellent at naval warfare, as
Napoleon was a land warfare.
 Nelson split the French fleet and capturing
several ships. The end result of this battle
• 1. Showed the British Navy supremacy
• 2. Napoleon gave up his plans for invading Britain
 In
the 1800s Napoleon was master of
Europe.
 1807-1812: French Empire lasted for five
years. The Empire was large and unstable.
The rulers of the countries were Napoleons
puppets a many were members of his
family. Napoleon controlled Spain, Grand
Duchy of Warsaw, and number of German
kingdoms in Central Europe. Russia, Austria,
and Prussia had loose alliances.
 Napoleon’s actions were the cause of his
collapse.

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