Section 3 Explain how Napoleon Bonaparte came to power. Summarize how Napoleon restored order in France Describe the extent and weaknesses of Napoleon’s empire. Napoleon was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. He came from obscurity in the French army to become the leader of France from 1795-1799. Napoleon Seizes Power: Napoleon Bonaparte: born in 1769 on the island of Corsica located on the Mediterranean Sea. At age nine he was sent to military school. By the time the Revolution broke out he joined the army of the new government. Hero of the Hour: October, 1795: when royal rebels marched on the National Convention, Napoleon was told to defend the delegates. Napoleon greeted the royalists with cannon fire. The royalists fled in panic and Napoleon became a hero throughout Paris, saving the republic. 1796: the Directory appointed Napoleon to lead the French army against Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia. • Crossed the Alps into Italy winning victories • Napoleon went into Egypt to stop British trade with India. In Egypt he was unable to achieve success. • Napoleon was pinned down in Egypt by the Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces. • Even at this time Napoleon spun his story as a hero and kept defeats out of the press. Coup d’Etat: By 1799, the Directory was losing control and the confidence of the French people. (“blow to the state”) November, 1799: Napoleon decided to seize political power of France. Troops surrounded the national legislature and drove the members out. Those members who remained voted to dissolve the Directory. They chose to establish a three consul rule. Napoleon seized power known as a coup. 1799: Britain, Austria, and Russia formed an alliance to drive Napoleon out of power. Napoleon led his troops out of Paris, eventually all three nations out of war and diplomacy signed a peace agreement with France. 1802: For the first time in ten years Europe was at peace. Now Napoleon could concentrate on restoring social order in France. In the beginning Napoleon pretended to be a constitutionally chosen leader. 1800: a vote of the people known as Plebiscite, was held to approve a new constitution. Restoring Order at Home: Napoleon kept many of the changes of the Revolution. He strengthened the central government and achieve some of the goals of the Revolution. Establishing a Plan: • Economy on solid footing, new method of tax collection and established a national banking system. • Dismissed corrupt officials, established the Lycrees: government run public schools. These schools were open to male students no matter the background. Graduates were appointed to public office based on merit rather family connections. Concordart: or agreement with Pope Pius VII. This established a new relationship between church and state. The government recognized the church and the influence with the french people. Napoleonic Code: System of Laws and eliminated injustices. It limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights. Also, restored slavery in the French colonies of the Caribbean. December 2, 1804: Napoleon dressed in a robe of purple velvet. He walked down the aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. The pope was waiting on him with a crown, Napoleon took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head. By doing this it showed he was more powerful than the Church. Loss of American Territories: The African colony of Saint Domingue wanted their freedom from slavery under the leadership of Toussaint L’Ouverture. 1801: Napoleon wanted to take back the colony and restore the sugar industry. The French forces were devastated by disease and the colonies were fighters. Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the Americas and offered to sell all the Louisiana Territory to U.S. in 1803. President Jefferson agreed to purchase the territory for 15 million dollars. Napoleon saw benefit in selling the territory; • A. he gained money to finance operations in Europe. • B. Punish the British, “The sale assures forever the power of the United States.” he also mused “ and I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride.” • Conquering Europe: So far Napoleon had annexed Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy and he had set up a puppet government in Switzerland. • Britain: convinced Russia, Austria, and Sweden to alliance against France. Napoleon met the challenge and he defeated the enemy. The enemy could not predict what he would do next and took heavy losses. 1805, Battle of Austerlitz: Napoleon issued a proclamation to his troops expressing pride. The countries of Austria, Prussia, and Russia to sign peace treaties. France’s only major enemy left is Britain. 1805: This was the one major battle loss to Napoleon. This battle took place of the coast of Spain. British commander Horatio Nelson was excellent at naval warfare, as Napoleon was a land warfare. Nelson split the French fleet and capturing several ships. The end result of this battle • 1. Showed the British Navy supremacy • 2. Napoleon gave up his plans for invading Britain In the 1800s Napoleon was master of Europe. 1807-1812: French Empire lasted for five years. The Empire was large and unstable. The rulers of the countries were Napoleons puppets a many were members of his family. Napoleon controlled Spain, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and number of German kingdoms in Central Europe. Russia, Austria, and Prussia had loose alliances. Napoleon’s actions were the cause of his collapse.