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Report
What is ZigBee?
-
-
Open global standard with an alliance of members (175+)
promoted by Chipcon, Mitsubishi, Philips, Honeywell ++. Alliance
members participate in working groups targeting to define
standard profiles (like in Bluetooth).
Radiocrafts is a member of the ZigBee Alliance
Specification rev. 1.0 ratified Mid December 2004.
FREE TO DOWNLOAD FROM www.zigbee.com
Targeted for home and building automation & industrial control
Quarterly Member meetings with “open house”. Each 2. month:
interoperability tests
www.zigbee.org : read all about it.
www.radiocrafts.com: Application Note AN003
Member of
Radiocrafts
- Home and building automation
- Alarms and security systems
- Sensor networks/industrial systems
Member of
Radiocrafts
- Personal health care
- Consumer electronics
Networking and interoperability
- Main benefits are mesh ad-hoc self-forming networks
& interoperability through defined profiles (agreement
on a series of messages defining an application
space)
Mesh
Star
Coordinator (FFD, Mains powered, RX always on (-CT))
Router (FFD, Mains powered, RX always on (-CT))
End Device (RFD, Battery powered)
Member of
Radiocrafts
Cluster Tree
ZigBee Device types
• ZigBee Coordinator (ZC)
– Acts as IEEE 802.15.4 PAN coordinator (FFD)
– One and only one required for each ZB network
– Initiates network formation
– May act as router once network is formed
• ZigBee Router (ZR)
– Acts as IEEE 802.15.4 Router (FFD)
– Optional network component
– May associate with ZC or with previously associated ZR
– Participates in multihop routing of messages
• ZigBee End Device (ZED)
– Optional network component
– Does not participate in routing
– Reduced Functionality Device (RFD)
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Radiocrafts
ZigBee vs. WLAN vs BT
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Radiocrafts
Basic Network Characteristics I
•
•
•
•
Lots of devices
Infrequently used
Small data packets
Long battery Lifetime
• Addressing:
Each node unique 64 bit IEEE MAC
address (same as for Ethernet)
Upper 24 bit assigned by IEEE (buy UOI)
Lower 40 bit: serial number (unlimited
number of devices)
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Radiocrafts
Basic Network Characteristics II
• 65,536 network (client) nodes (due to 16
bits PAN id)
• Not for streaming 250 kbps data;
MAC data Frame: 127 Bytes
No handling of fragmentation today
(handling of packets routed differently in
network, lost or arriving at random times)
• Optimized for timing-critical applications
– Network join time:
30 ms (typ)
– Sleeping node changing to active: 15
ms (typ)
(Versus 10-30 seconds for BT & WLAN)
Member of
Radiocrafts
What is IEEE 802.15.4?
What is ZigBee?
Application Layer
ZigBee Stack
IEEE Stack (MAC)
PHY:
868/915MHz
PHY:
2.4 GHz
MAC: Medium Access control
PHY: Physical layer
ZigBee defining upper protocol
layers:
Application:
-Application Profiles
-Application Framework
-Network and Security layer
IEEE802.15.4-2003: standard
defining PHY and MAC
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Radiocrafts
IEEE802.15.4-2003:
• PHY:
868MHz (Europe): 20kbps
915MHz (USA): 40kbps
2.4GHz (2.40-2.4835 GHz): 250kbps
(raw bit rate)
• DSSS (robust against interferers), O-QPSK,
16 channels, 5MHz spacing, 3MHz Bandwidth
RBW
100 kHz
Ref Lvl
VBW
100 kHz
0 dBm
SWT
5 ms
RF Att
Unit
30 dB
dBm
0
A
-10
-20
-30
1AVG
1SA
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
Center 2.45 GHz
Date:
23.OCT.2003
1 MHz/
Span 10 MHz
21:34:19
• MAC: Synchronizing to beacons (optional), acknowledge and
retransmissions of data packets, CRC, security/encryption (AES-128)
• Current version of IEEE standard does NOT support Cluster Tree
network. Next revision, IEEE802.15.4b will support this.
• Provides the higher layers (ZigBee) with a robust radio link
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Radiocrafts
IEEE 802.15.4 vs ZigBee
ZigBee: The stack layers “creates the network” by:
• Network layer
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Join and leave networks
Route frames
Discover routes
Discover one-hop neighbours
Apply security
Starting a network (coordinator)
Assigning addresses (coordinator)
• Application Support Sublayer
– Tables for binding
– Forward messages between bound devices
Member of
Radiocrafts
Application profiles
There are three types of profiles:
• Public Profile (like the Home Control Lighting profile)
• Published profile
• Private profile (The Radiocrafts SPPIO)
(A Private Profile is becoming Published when…it is published)
In order to define a private profile, a unique profile ID
must be issued by the ZigBee Alliance which requires
Alliance Membership (lowest entry level is USD 3 500)
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Radiocrafts
Application profiles(specification
cont.
frontpage)
Today ONE profile is defined:
• Lighting profile: Light switches,
dimmers, occupancy sensors
The following is planned (last meeting in the
Alliance):
• Industrial plant monitoring
• Non-ducting HVAC
• Building automation
Expected profiles:
• Serial port profile
• Industrial Automation
• AMR (Automatic Meter Reading)
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Radiocrafts
Certification & Compliance
Marking with Z-logo: Only for certified end products.
Certification: Only for ZigBee-members. Full conformance
testing based on a ZigBee-compliant platform
(RFIC+MCU controller+stack)
Compliance:
Three types of compliance programs:
1. ZigBee compliant Platform (module-makers)
2. Logo test program: Using a module and testing for
rights to Z-logo
3. ZigBee-friendly test program (do not intentionally
interoperate). Can use the word “ZigBee”, not Z-marking.
Next two years: NTS (US) and TÜV (Worldwide) have test
Member of
monopole
Radiocrafts

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