st 1 U.S. History 9 Weeks Review Growth of Railroads and The West • Railroads facilitated growth of the West and increased markets due to the ability to ship material from the West to the East and vice versa. • The Growth of the West is largely attributed to the Homestead Act, which gave free land to White settlers. The Gilded Age • AFL and the Knights of Labor were different in that the Knights of Labor accepted all laborers, skilled and unskilled and the AFL did not. • Marches for Women’s Rights, Civil Service Reform, Rise of Social Darwinism, Immigrant Exclusion Acts took place in the Gilded Age Era. Democratic Processes • Women: • In order to gain the right to vote women used the non-violent method of public protest and the 19th Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution. • Francis Willard focused on the 18th Amendment which made alcoholic beverages illegal, this movement is also known as the Temperance movement. • The 17th Amendment allowed for the election of U.S. Senators by popular vote. Spanish American War and Expansionism • Alfred Thayer Mahan: Focused on Naval dominance for the success of expansionism abroad. • The Spanish-American war is significant to the U.S. due to the acquisition of territory which allowed fro more resources and trade routes. • Hawaii’s annexation was important because it created a supply (fuel) station for naval vessels. • The Rise to World Power Era focused on global conflict, Expansionism, Practice of Diplomacy and the growth of modern warfare. WWI • Germany’s Sussex Pledge stated that they would warn merchant and ships before they targeted and sink the vessels. • Germany however did not follow through with their promise which lead to the U.S. entry in to WWI. Susan B. Anthony • Susan B. Anthony believed the only way for women to acquire the “blessings of liberty” was by voting in elections Progressive Era Political Reforms •Initiative, Referendum, and Recall all helped make the government officials respond to the needs of voters more readily. Chemical Warfare • Technological innovations such as poison gas helped with development of a stalemate on the Western Front. Business Practices • The Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Food and Drug Administration were all created because the government felt that business practices must be regulated in the public interest. Industrialization •Industrialization was when steam and electricity replaced human muscle, iron replaced wood, and steel replaced iron, meaning that materials and goods were produced at a faster rate. Reasons for U.S. involvement in World War I • Germany sinks the Lusitania • Propaganda fuels anti- German feelings • Zimmerman Telegram is intercepted • Germany resumes U-Boat attacks on U.S. ships Treason •After the US declared war on Germany in World War I the U.S. mail was censored in order to prevent treason. Immigration Quotas • Nativists pushed the government to pass immigration quotas that limited the number of immigrants who can enter the US. Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles • The U.S. Senate to declined the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles because the treaties would involve the United States getting tangled up in alliances. Muckrakers • The muckrakers wrote about the problems that the government had because they wanted to cleanse it with democratic controls. Spanish American War Events • Remember the following events in chronological order: • Sinking of the battleship USS Maine. • Rough Riders fight in Cuba • Guam and Puerto Rico become territories of the U.S. • Liberation of Cuba Monopolies •During the Gilded Age, the monopolists have more power to influence the government Treaty of Versailles •The Treaty of Versailles resulted in boundary changes of Europe.