The Power of Feedback

The Power of Feedback
Hattie & Timperley (2007) from
Review of Educational Research, 77(1)
The Meaning of Feedback
 Info provided by something/someone
regarding performance or understanding
People (teachers, parents, peers, self)
Things (books, computers)
 Purpose—fills the gap between what is
understood and what needs to be understood
How can this gap be closed?
 Affective Processes
 effort
 motivation
 engagement
 Cognitive Processes
 restructuring
 confirming correctness
 indicating more information is available or needed
 indicating alternative strategies to understand
Some types of feedback are more
 Most powerful—involving students who
received information about a task and how to
do it more effectively.
 Least powerful—praise, rewards, punishment
 Why might extrinsic rewards yield a lower
effect size?
See p. 84
Read the excerpt
 The last paragraph on p. 84 that continues
over to 85-86
 The authors review Kluger and Denisi (1996)
 In it they indicate that “the power of feedback
is influenced by the direction of the feedback
relative to performance on a task”
 What does this mean to you?
 Think (30 sec); Pair (1 min); Share
How feedback works
 If we want increased “effort” and more “responsibility”
 …the intended goal (aka learning target) needs to be:
 Clear;
 Highly committed to;
 Student belief that success is within reach
The teacher’s role:
Reduce the discrepancy between current and desired
understanding by engineering a different kind of
learning environment
Reducing the Discrepancy
 Engineer an environment whereby Attribution
Internal and;
 This is done by creating a learning
environment in which students develop selfregulation and error detection skills
Dylan Wiliam’s Aspects of
Formative Assessment
Where the
learner is going
Where the learner is
How to get there
Clarify and share
discussions, tasks
and activities that
elicit evidence of
Providing feedback
that moves
learners forward
Understand and
share learning
Activating students as learning
resources for one another
Activating students as owners
of their own learning
How can teachers assist?
Provide challenging and specific goals
 Specificity can be obtained through the use of
exemplars and student generated rubrics
Specific goals focus students’ attention
Specific goals make the feedback more
Specific goals allow for more direct criteria for
Hattie & Timperley’s Feedback Model
 What is the goal? (where am I going)
 What progress am I making? (How am I
 What do I need to do in order to make better
progress? (Where to next)
Where Am I Going?
 The learning goals relative to the task or performance
 Involve 2 dimensions:
 Challenge
 Commitment
 Goals relate to feedback in that:
 They inform individuals so they can evaluate their
actions and adjust
 The feedback provides information so that students
can close the gap
Can student goal setting help teachers deal with the
different skill levels of students within a class?
How Am I Going?
 Tells the student (and teacher) what progress
is being made
 This kind of feedback gives:
Information about progress and;
How to proceed
Where to Next?
 The answer shouldn’t be “more”
 These could include:
 Enhanced challenges
 Additional self-regulation
 Greater fluency/automaticity
 More strategies
 Deeper understanding
Could this kind of feedback help teachers deal with the
different skill levels of students within a class?
The 4 Levels of Feedback
Feedback about the task or product (FT)
Feedback about the process (FP)
Underlying methods used to help the student
improve— “Including more descriptive language will
help others develop a better picture”
Feedback about self-regulation (FR)
Correct or incorrect— “You left out an important
detail that will help your summary make more sense”
Self checks on criteria in alignment with the
exemplar— “Look at the rubric and determine if you
have met all the quality components”
Feedback directed at self (FS)
Great job
Group Work
Divide into 3 groups. Each group will explain 1
kind of feedback and provide examples to your
Group A—Feedback About Task (FT)
Group B—Feedback About Self-Regulation (FR)
Group C—Feedback About Self as a Person (FS)

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