Nationalist Revolutions
Sweep the West
Chapter 8
Europe Faces Revolutions
Chapter 8 Section 2
Clash of Philosophies
• Different ways of political
thought struggled for
dominance in Europe
• Conservative-wealthy property
owners, supported what type of
• Liberal-middle-class business
owners/merchants, supported
what type of gov’t?
• Radical-lower/working class,
supported what type of gov’t?
Nationalism Develops
• Nationalism began to spread
and people in Europe became
loyal to the nation/people
instead of who?
• Only a few countries in Europe
were independent (France,
England, and Spain) they were
called nation-states
• Which groups felt
nationalistic? What were these
groups trying to achieve?
Nationalists Challenge
Conservative Power
• ___________ was the first country to
gain independence with a nationalist
movement against the Ottoman Turks
• Greeks Gain Independence
• Many powerful countries supported
Greece’s nationalists, why?
• Greece becomes an independent nation
in 1830
• 1830s Uprisings Crushed
• Nationalist riots took place in Belgium,
Italy, and Poland…who was losing
• 1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite
• Austria, Hungary, and the Czech
Republic experienced ethnic
revolts, meaning what?
• Conservatives and liberals went
back and forth, vying for power
Radicals Change France
• The attempt of Charles X to restore
the monarchy in France causes
__________ to __________.
• The Third Republic
• His replacement, Louis-Phillipe is
overtaken in favor of a what?
• Parisians are split on what reforms to
make, end up accepting a moderate
constitution with a president
• France Accepts a Strong Ruler
• Louis-Napoleon wins election and
becomes Emperor Napoleon III…what
were the French people most worried
Reform in Russia
• Feudalism continues to exist in Russia,
why doesn’t the czar want to free the
serfs? What would be the benefit?
• Defeat Brings Change
• After Czar Nicholas is defeated in the
Crimean War, his son Alexander II
takes over and wants to modernize
• Reform and Reaction
• Frees the serfs but debt ties them to the
• After Alexander II’s assassination. AIII
takes over and nationalists call for
industrial development
8.2 Daily Questions
1. Explain the differences between conservative, liberal, and
radical political thought in Europe in the 1800s.
2. Were the peasants in Russia better off after serfdom was
abolished? Why or why not? Explain
Honors Only
3. Was the election of Louis-Napoleon a victory for
radicals? Explain.
Chapter 8 Section 3
A Force of Unity or Disunity
• Nationalism called for a group
of people to unite under a
single government, having
common goals and ideas
• Those who wanted to keep the
monarchy saw nationalism as
a factor that disunited, why?
• Nationalism can unify,
separate or aid in state
Nationalism Shakes Aging
• The Breakup of the Austrian Empire
• Austrian emperor Francis Joseph splits
his empire into two states (although it
is called Austria-Hungary) while
nationalism swept through the
ethnically diverse area
• The Russian Empire Crumbles
• Russian czars attempt ___________
which tried to force a common
culture on all ethnic groups
• What was the result?
• The Ottoman Empire Weakens
• Ottoman Turks are forced to grant
citizenship to ethnic groups in their
empire…what was the result?
Cavour Unites Italy
• Cavour Leads Italian Unification
• Victor Emmanuel (king) and Cavour
(his p.m.) attempt to “unite” Italy
under the kingdom of Sardinia
• Garibaldi Brings Unity
• Cavour provokes a war with _________
in order to take over northern Italy
• Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts’ conquer
and unite southern Italy, making way
for the Sardinian king
• By taking Venetia and the Papal States,
Italy was now a united nation
Bismarck Unites Germany
• Prussia Leads German Unification
• Ethnically homogeneous
• Strong army
• 1848, a constitutional convention is
held, Germany was poised for
• Bismarck Takes Control
• Wilhelm I chooses Otto Von
Bismarck as his PM who rules using
• Bismarck rules without the consent of
Parliament and without a budget
Bismarck Unites Germany
• Prussia Expands
• Forms an alliance with Austria and
gains territory in Denmark
• Seven Weeks’ War
• Bismarck provokes Austria with
border disputes and humiliates
Austria in the Seven Weeks’ War
• Prussia now controlled all parts of
“Germany” by the late 1800s
Bismarck Unites Germany
• The Franco Prussian War
• Catholic Southern Germany
resisted Prussian authority
• Bismarck starts a war with France
to rally the support of the south
• The Prussian army moves into
France and captures Napoleon III
• Final stage in German unification.
Wilhem I is crowned kaiser
A Shift in Power
• Europe’s major powers
after the Congress of
• Britain and Germany
emerge as the most
powerful military and
8.3 Daily Questions
1. How did nationalism create a shift in power in Europe in
the 19th century?
2. How was Russification supposed to strengthen Russia?
Honors Only
3. Which empires gained the most from nationalism? Which
were devastated by nationalist ideas?
Revolution in the Arts
Chapter 8 Section 4
The Romantic Movement
• Enlightenmentromanticism…relati
• Religion to reason to emotion
• The Ideas of Romanticism
• Examples: emotion, the supernatural,
nature, heroism, music, tradition,
common people, radical change
• Romanticism in Literature
• ______ was the highest form of
expression and represented
romanticism’s ideals
• Von Goethe, the Grimm brothers, and
The Romantic Movement
• The Gothic Novel
• Mary Shelley and Frankenstein
• Composers Emphasize
• ______________ was the
greatest composer of the
romantic era…what feelings
does it evoke?
• Mendelssohn and Chopin
brought drama, drawing on
literature for inspiration
A Shift to Realism in the Arts
• Why the shift from romanticism to
realism? Characteristics of realism? (the
name? I told you, history is hard)
• Photographers Capture Reality
• Daguerreotypes, the first practical form of
• Talbot’s light sensitive paper allows
photos to be reproduced where?
• Writers Study Society
• How was society portrayed by writers like
Zola and Dickens?
Oswald Achenbach, Abendstimmung in der Campagna, 1850.
Eilif Peterssen, The salmon fisher, 1889
Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet, 1854. Realist painting by Gustave Courbet.
Impressionists React Against
• Life in the Moment
• Positive view of society in
western Europe
• Composers used atmosphere
and mood to help the
listener draw mental pictures
• Significant changes occur to
art, literature and music
after industrialization?
“Landscape is nothing but an impression, and an instantaneous one, hence this
label that was given us, by the way because of me. I had sent a thing done in Le
Havre, from my window, sun in the mist and a few masts of boats sticking up in
the foreground....They asked me for a title for the catalogue, it couldn't really be
taken for a view of Le Havre, and I said: 'Put Impression.”-Monet
8.4 Daily Questions
1. Which ideas of romanticism would encourage
nationalism, why?
2. Who were the villains and who were the heroes of realist
art and literature?
3. Is impressionism more like realism or romanticism?
Free Writing Activity
• Write nonstop for 5 minutes.
• Do not make corrections as you write.
• Keep writing, even if you have to write something
like, "I don't know what to write."
• Write whatever comes into your mind.
One side of your paper should be about romanticism
the other side should be about realism.

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