Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West Chapter 8 Europe Faces Revolutions Chapter 8 Section 2 Clash of Philosophies • Different ways of political thought struggled for dominance in Europe • Conservative-wealthy property owners, supported what type of gov’t? • Liberal-middle-class business owners/merchants, supported what type of gov’t? • Radical-lower/working class, supported what type of gov’t? Nationalism Develops • Nationalism began to spread and people in Europe became loyal to the nation/people instead of who? • Only a few countries in Europe were independent (France, England, and Spain) they were called nation-states • Which groups felt nationalistic? What were these groups trying to achieve? Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power • ___________ was the first country to gain independence with a nationalist movement against the Ottoman Turks • Greeks Gain Independence • Many powerful countries supported Greece’s nationalists, why? • Greece becomes an independent nation in 1830 • 1830s Uprisings Crushed • Nationalist riots took place in Belgium, Italy, and Poland…who was losing power? • 1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite • Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic experienced ethnic revolts, meaning what? • Conservatives and liberals went back and forth, vying for power Radicals Change France • The attempt of Charles X to restore the monarchy in France causes __________ to __________. • The Third Republic • His replacement, Louis-Phillipe is overtaken in favor of a what? • Parisians are split on what reforms to make, end up accepting a moderate constitution with a president • France Accepts a Strong Ruler • Louis-Napoleon wins election and becomes Emperor Napoleon III…what were the French people most worried about? Reform in Russia • Feudalism continues to exist in Russia, why doesn’t the czar want to free the serfs? What would be the benefit? • Defeat Brings Change • After Czar Nicholas is defeated in the Crimean War, his son Alexander II takes over and wants to modernize Russia • Reform and Reaction • Frees the serfs but debt ties them to the land • After Alexander II’s assassination. AIII takes over and nationalists call for industrial development 8.2 Daily Questions 1. Explain the differences between conservative, liberal, and radical political thought in Europe in the 1800s. 2. Were the peasants in Russia better off after serfdom was abolished? Why or why not? Explain Honors Only 3. Was the election of Louis-Napoleon a victory for radicals? Explain. Nationalism Chapter 8 Section 3 Nationalism: A Force of Unity or Disunity • Nationalism called for a group of people to unite under a single government, having common goals and ideas • Those who wanted to keep the monarchy saw nationalism as a factor that disunited, why? • Nationalism can unify, separate or aid in state building Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires • The Breakup of the Austrian Empire • Austrian emperor Francis Joseph splits his empire into two states (although it is called Austria-Hungary) while nationalism swept through the ethnically diverse area • The Russian Empire Crumbles • Russian czars attempt ___________ which tried to force a common culture on all ethnic groups • What was the result? • The Ottoman Empire Weakens • Ottoman Turks are forced to grant citizenship to ethnic groups in their empire…what was the result? Cavour Unites Italy • Cavour Leads Italian Unification • Victor Emmanuel (king) and Cavour (his p.m.) attempt to “unite” Italy under the kingdom of Sardinia • Garibaldi Brings Unity • Cavour provokes a war with _________ in order to take over northern Italy • Garibaldi and the “Red Shirts’ conquer and unite southern Italy, making way for the Sardinian king • By taking Venetia and the Papal States, Italy was now a united nation Bismarck Unites Germany • Prussia Leads German Unification • Ethnically homogeneous • Strong army • 1848, a constitutional convention is held, Germany was poised for unification • Bismarck Takes Control • Wilhelm I chooses Otto Von Bismarck as his PM who rules using realpolitik…meaning? • Bismarck rules without the consent of Parliament and without a budget Bismarck Unites Germany • Prussia Expands • Forms an alliance with Austria and gains territory in Denmark • Seven Weeks’ War • Bismarck provokes Austria with border disputes and humiliates Austria in the Seven Weeks’ War • Prussia now controlled all parts of “Germany” by the late 1800s Bismarck Unites Germany • The Franco Prussian War • Catholic Southern Germany resisted Prussian authority • Bismarck starts a war with France to rally the support of the south • The Prussian army moves into France and captures Napoleon III • Final stage in German unification. Wilhem I is crowned kaiser A Shift in Power • Europe’s major powers after the Congress of Vienna? • Britain and Germany emerge as the most powerful military and economically 8.3 Daily Questions 1. How did nationalism create a shift in power in Europe in the 19th century? 2. How was Russification supposed to strengthen Russia? Honors Only 3. Which empires gained the most from nationalism? Which were devastated by nationalist ideas? Revolution in the Arts Chapter 8 Section 4 The Romantic Movement • Enlightenmentromanticism…relati onship? • Religion to reason to emotion • The Ideas of Romanticism • Examples: emotion, the supernatural, nature, heroism, music, tradition, common people, radical change • Romanticism in Literature • ______ was the highest form of expression and represented romanticism’s ideals • Von Goethe, the Grimm brothers, and Hugo The Romantic Movement • The Gothic Novel • Mary Shelley and Frankenstein • Composers Emphasize Emotions • ______________ was the greatest composer of the romantic era…what feelings does it evoke? • Mendelssohn and Chopin brought drama, drawing on literature for inspiration A Shift to Realism in the Arts • Why the shift from romanticism to realism? Characteristics of realism? (the name? I told you, history is hard) • Photographers Capture Reality • Daguerreotypes, the first practical form of photography • Talbot’s light sensitive paper allows photos to be reproduced where? Significance? • Writers Study Society • How was society portrayed by writers like Zola and Dickens? Oswald Achenbach, Abendstimmung in der Campagna, 1850. Eilif Peterssen, The salmon fisher, 1889 Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet, 1854. Realist painting by Gustave Courbet. Impressionists React Against Realism • Life in the Moment • Positive view of society in western Europe • Composers used atmosphere and mood to help the listener draw mental pictures • Significant changes occur to art, literature and music after industrialization? “Landscape is nothing but an impression, and an instantaneous one, hence this label that was given us, by the way because of me. I had sent a thing done in Le Havre, from my window, sun in the mist and a few masts of boats sticking up in the foreground....They asked me for a title for the catalogue, it couldn't really be taken for a view of Le Havre, and I said: 'Put Impression.”-Monet 8.4 Daily Questions 1. Which ideas of romanticism would encourage nationalism, why? 2. Who were the villains and who were the heroes of realist art and literature? 3. Is impressionism more like realism or romanticism? Free Writing Activity • Write nonstop for 5 minutes. • Do not make corrections as you write. • Keep writing, even if you have to write something like, "I don't know what to write." • Write whatever comes into your mind. One side of your paper should be about romanticism the other side should be about realism.