Ruminant vs Non-Ruminant - Tarleton State University

 Single
 Eat feed low in fiber
 Humans are also
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Breaks down
feedstuffs into …..
 simple chemical
 so the pig can
 and utilize them .
Breaks down feed
stuffs by chewing
 Adds saliva to help in
Muscles contract to
move the food down
to the stomach
Adds digestive juices
to break down food
The small intestine….
Mixes secretions
 Absorbs nutrients
Storage and formation
of feces
 Absorption of water
 Secretion and
reabsorption of
 Abomasum-
true stomach
 depends on digestive enzymes
 pepsin, rennin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, HCL
 Needs
 energy
(fat and CHO), protein (a.a.), minerals
(Ca:P 1.2:1 to 1.5:1), vitamins, water,
antibiotics and other additives
Swine Nutrition
 Basic
diet is Corn and Soybean Meal
 standard ration based on cereal grains,
SBM, vit., minerals, additives
 majority buys a SBM pre-mix to add to corn
or milo
Energy sources
 cereal
grains -CHO
 Fat
 Protein
Cereal Grains- CHO Values
 corn-
100% energy value - 8% CP
 wheat - 99% use 12.5 % CP
 milo - 96% (more variable on protein
content) use 8% CP when unknown
 Definition-
any ingredients or material fed
to animals for purposes of sustaining them
 Classes of Feeds
 roughages
 concentrates
 by-products
 protein
 minerals, vitamins, and additives
Swine Nutrition
 Concentrates
- high in energy, low in fiber
and < 20% protein
 corn, barley, milo, wheat, rye, oats
 thumb rules - ok in P, low in Ca
 low
in vitamins, except for beta carotene (A)
 protein and minerals are low
 Corn
is high in energy, low in fiber and
palatable (7-9% protein)
Swine Nutrition
 Proteins
- high in nitrogen
 protein quality - amino acids
 essential
vs non-essential
 limiting amino acids (lysine, methionine &
typtophan); sometimes threonine
Protein Sources
 Soybean
Meal, Fish Meal, Meat and Bone
Meal, Peanut Meal; not Cottonseed Meal
(gossypol toxicity)
 NPN= non-protein nitrogen- not for swine
or poultry
Classes of Feeds
 Vitamins
 natural,
 water vs fat soluble classification
 A,D,& E are most common in ruminants
 A, D, & E and B vit. re needed for nonruminants
 Riboflavin
 Niacin
 Pantothenic Acid
 B12
 Choline
 Vit A
Minerals- need 10
 macro
or major- Ca, P, NaCl
 trace - Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg, Si, Se
Classes of Feeds
 Special
 Fats
 Feed
and oils (increase calories without bulk)
 increase
efficiency of gain, prevent diseases,
preserve the feed
hormones, paylean, navigator, etc.
Creep Feeding
 start
at 3-10 days
 high protein and sugar
 switch at 40 lbs
 adv. - uniformity, increase weaning weight,
decreases mortality, scours, weight loss by
sow and setback when weaned
Swine Feeding Stages
 starter
pig ration at 10- 50 lbs (18%)
 grower ration at 50 - 100/125 lbs (16%)
 finishing ration at 125-250 lbs (12-14%)
Swine Feeding
 feed
efficiency should be around 3:1
 3 lbs of feed to yield one pound of wt. gain
 full vs limit feeding for growing-finishing
 replacement gilts should receive 4 lbs/day
 increase feed 2-3 X during lactation
Swine Feeding cont.
 Sows
and boars is condition dependent
 can add peanut or alfalfa hay (limited)
 do not over feed
Swine Feeding cont.
 Soft
Pork - caused by lower melting points
in the makeup of fat caused by feeding
certain feeds: ie. too much peanut meal
 Trichinosis - traditionally garbage fed swine
 Maintenance-
a ration which is adequate to
prevent any loss or gain of tissue in the
body when there is no production
 the
difference in energy needs are related to the
amount of activity
 Growth-
increase in size of muscles, bones,
internal and external parts of the body (the
foundation of animal production)
 Finishing- the laying on or deposition of fat
Evaluation of Feedstuffs
Physical- stage of plant maturity, foreign material,
 Cost/Unit of nutrient Protein ex.
@ $6.00/cwt. @ 44% c.p.
 100 X .44=44 lb of crude protein from cwt of SBM
 $6.00/44 = $.136 per pound of protein
 OR $320/ton for 44 % SBM =
 2000 X .44 = 880; $320/ 880 = $.36 per pound of
protein for corn
Evaluation of Feedstuffs
 observe:
 palatability,
grade, preparation, ingredient
combination, and quantity fed
 Chemical Analysis protein,
 Digestion
proximate analysis
fat, moisture, and ash (minerals)
trial example
 Measuring
of Feedstuffs
 TDN=
sum total of the digestible protein, fiber,
and nitrogen free extract, and fat X 2.25
 Calorie or Net Energy system
Energy= gross energy-fecal energy-gaseous
energy-urinary energy-heat increment
gross energy = combustion heat
Evaluation of Feedstuffs
energy = portion of gross energy that is
not excreted in feces
Metabolic energy = portion of gross energy that is
not lost in feces, urine and gas
heat increment = difference between ME & NE
heat unavoidably produced by an animal in
digestion and metabolism
we use DE more often
How to Balance a Ration
 Consideration
 availability
and cost of feedstuffs
 moisture content
 composition of feedstuffs
 nutrient allowances
 composition of ration needed
How to Balance a Ration
 Methods
 Pearson
 Trial and error
 Net energy
 Computer
Commercial Feed Selection
 Reputation
of the mfg.
 Needs
 Feed
tag guarantee
 Flexible formulas
Home vs Commercial Mixed
 Options
 commercially
 purchase grain and add protein supplement
 use home grown grain and add protein suppl.
 purchase commercial feed and add only mineral
and vitamin pre-mix
 add all indiv. ingredients
Feeding Systems
 Hand
vs Self feeding
 Self feeding advantages
 less
 increase feed consumption
 increase gains and earlier marketing
 not likely to go off feed
 time and $$$$ saved by bulk feeding
Feeding Systems
 Self
feeding disadvantages
 unless
mixed correctly, animals tend to select
grain and discard roughage; therefore, grind it
find or pelletizing is essential
 increase cost, if more concentrate is fed
 Other
 pigs-
add ground alfalfa
Feeding Systems
 Creep
 the
supplemental feeding of young nursing
animals in an enclosure which is accessible to
them but not to their parent
for young animals are cheap gains due to less
fat content in young animals and less
consumption/body wt.
adv.- increases weaning wt., uniformity, achieve
genetic potential, assists first sows, etc.
Feeding Systems
 Feeds
should not be abruptly changed
 Check for Nutrient deficiencies
Nutrient Deficiencies
 Protein
 depressed
appetite, lower energy intake, loss of
weight, slower growth, irregular or delayed
estrus, reduced milk production
 Major
 Ca & P - rickets (fragile bones)
 Salt - coarse hair coat, loss of appetite
 I - goiter, poor growth, listlessness
Nutrient Deficiencies
 Mn
- weak legs
 Zn - rough skin- parakeratosis
 Fe - anemia
 Se - white muscle disease
 Co - weakness, loss of appetite
 Cu - severe diarrhea, weight loss, rough,
coarse, bleached coat, anemia
Nutrient Deficiencies
 Vitamins
A -
most likely, esp. in confinement animals
carotene is essential
- rickets, osteomalacia in mature animals
 E - white muscle disease (Se related)
 K - Excessive bleeding (coagulant Vit)
 B & C ruminants (No problem); yet with nonruminants; yes, there can be a problem
Nutrient Deficiencies
 Water
 source
 major
constituent of the body
 determined by rate of gain, lactation, reprod,
environment, activity, feed intake, etc.
(>1% = toxic)
 Nutritional
deficiencies come by too little or
too moldy (<200 ppm aflatoxin in corn)
Preparation of Feeds
 Coarsesness
of grinding- hogs prefer coarse
particle size, however, we see an increase
FE with decreasing the grind size because
of increased digestibility, but too finely
ground feeds aggravate the stomach and
cause ulcers
Preparation of Feeds
 Pelleting-
costly, improves digestibility, size
(smaller the better), increases the value of a
high fiber diet, improves feed efficiency
 High moisture or reconstituted- slight
increase in FE, yet problems in the summer
Preparation of Feeds
 Wetting
or soaking- decreases wastage,
saves labor, increases gains and FE , Yet
gets soured in the summer
Relative effect of protein
 carcass
 feed efficiency
 gain/growth

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