Instrument Navigation - Kansas State University

Report
Instrument Navigation
Chapter 2, Section C
VOR Navigation
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Ground Based Transmitter
360 Radials
Aligned with magnetic north
Directional
Line of sight
VOR Ground Facility
Ground Facilities - VOR
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Operate in 108.0 - 117.95 MHz Band
Standard Service Volumes (SSV)
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High Altitude(HVOR) - 200 watts, up to
130 nm, used for airways
Low Altitude(LVOR) - about 100 watts,
up to 40 nm, used for airways
Terminal(TVOR) - 50 watts, 25 nm, used
for approaches
VOR Receiver Checks
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VOT
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VOR Ground Checkpoint
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Indicated radial; +/- 4o
VOR Airborne Checkpoint
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180o TO, 360o FROM; +/- 4o
Indicated radial; +/- 6o
Centerline of airway; +/- 6o
Dual VOR Check
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Within 4o
Using the VOR
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CDI
To-From Indicator
Intercepting a radial
Tracking
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Station passage
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wind correction
cone of confusion
Reverse sensing
Rotating Course Card
Omni Bearing Selector
TO/FROM
Course Deviation Indicator
Using the VOR
 Basic VOR Indicator
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each dot on CDI is 2o
full scale deflection is 10o
1 deg in 60 nm is 1 nm
OBS
 Horizontal Situation Indicator HSI
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incorporates HI, CDI, Glideslope
makes easier to scan
not reverse sensing except for using on BC
VOR Time & Distance
Calculations
 90 deg Method (no wind)
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Time to station=Time(sec)/bearing
change
VOR Time Distance -
0
90
Time to station (min)
Established inbound on a radial rotate the
obs 10o to the left, turn the aircraft 10o to
the right
Note the time and maintain heading until
the cdi centers
60 x Min flown between bearing change
Degrees of bearing change
Distance To station (NM)
TAS X Min. flown between bearing change
Degrees of bearing change
Isosceles Triangle
B
5 minutes
A
5 minutes
C
ADF Navigation
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Ground based transmitter
Low/medium frequency (AM)
Non-directional beacon (NDB)
Not line of sight
No receiver checks
No flags - listen to Morse code
Operational Considerations
 NDB
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Compass locator (LOM) - 25 watts, 15
NM
MH - less than 50 watts, 25 NM
H - 50 to 1999 watts, up to 50 NM
HH - 2,000 watts or more, 75 NM
Using the ADF (fixed card)
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Magnetic heading + relative bearing =
magnetic bearing
Intercepting a bearing
Tracking
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wind correction
 to the station
 from the station
Time and distance to a station
Station passage
Rotating Card
DME
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Ground based - VOR/DME, VORTAC,
ILS/DME, LOC/DME
Interrogation and response
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rate * time = distance
Uses slant distance - 1 NM away for
each 1000’ elevation
Area Navigation
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VOR/DME, VORTAC based
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INS
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Phantom VORs
Self Contained
LORAN
Radio Magnetic Indicator RMI
 HI, 1 or 2 pointers for the different
stations
 Pointers show the bearing to the
station without mental calculations
 Tail of the VOR pointer is the radial
you are on
Global Positioning System(GPS
 Describe how it works.
 A fog horn blows on the hour, … speed
of sound is 550 ft/s.
 Same for GPS except using speed of light.
 Accuracy within 300 meters 99.99% of time
 Vertical accuracy is not great.
 Accuracy can be improved by DGPS
Global Positioning System(GPS)
 RAIM
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continuously monitors signals received
for validity
required for IFR GPS
Global Positioning System(GPS)
 Two Main types of IFR GPS
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enroute approved
approach approved
database must be updated frequently
database contains info about airports,
intersections, VOR, NDB, etc
 Lack of Standardization among
manufacturers
GPS Approaches
 Generally has a LCD or LED CDI
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“fly to the bars”
 when navigating 30 miles away
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1 dot is 1 nm, 5 nm full scale deflection
 when closer
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ramps to 1 nm full scale deflection
 as you fly the approach
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ramps down to 0.3 nm full scale deflection

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