Document

Report
THIRD ANNUAL CONFERENCE
of the
‘Innovation, Creativity and Culture’
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University and Mykolas Romeris University
Vilnius, Lithuania – European Capital of Culture 2009
22-23 October 2009
Conference track: “Creativity and Innovation in University Culture”
A CHALLENGE TO INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY AT
UNIVERSITY FERNANDO PESSOA (PORTO, PORTUGAL):
ACTING UPON SPEECH-LANGUAGE DISORDERS
AS A TECHNIQUE AND AS AN ART
Alexandre Frey PINTO DE ALMEIDA, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor / Head of Department
Dep. of Speech Therapy
Health Sicences Faculty
University Fernando Pessoa
Porto / PORTUGAL
[email protected]
University Fernando Pessoa is a Portuguese private foundational Higher
Education institution located in Porto, the 2001’ European Capital of Culture.
UFP
University Fernando Pessoa - Porto, Portugal
Its motto is "nova et nove", which means in latin "making new things in a new
way".
University Fernando Pessoa is devised in three faculties (Health
Sciences, Human and Social Sciences, Science and Technology),
one School of Health Sciences and one autonomous unit (Ponte de
Lima College).
School of Health Sciences
Undergraduate Programs:
- Nursing
- Clinical Analyses and
Public Health
- Psychomotor Rehabilitation
- Physiotherapy
A detail of UFP Faculty of Health Sciences
(the entry of the Pedagogical Clinic of Odontology)
- Speech Therapy
SPEECH THERAPY
Portuguese framework for
the professional definition
Speech Therapy
«The Speech Therapist is responsible for the
development of activities in the domain of
prevention, assessment and treatment of human
communication disorders, including not only all
functions associated to verbal oral and written
comprehension and expression, but also other
forms of non verbal communication»
(Dec.-law n.º 564/99, 21 of December 1999)
TRADICIONAL CONCEPTIONS AND MODERN CONCEPTIONS OF SPEECH THERAPY
THE UFP MODEL
In Portugal, the model of Speech Therapy developed by UFP since 2002 helped
to change social and professional conceptions of the role of speech therapists.
TRADICIONAL CONCEPTIONS
MODERN CONCEPTIONS
Speech Therapy centred on verbal oral communication
Speech Therapy open to communication of every kind,
verbal or non verbal, oral or written, and also to
augmentative and alternative forms of communication
Speech Therapy having as main goal the treatment and
rehabilitation of communication disorders
Speech Therapy open to normal communication as much
as to disturbed communication – including in its aims
screening, prevention, preparation, diagnosis, evaluation
and not only rehabilitation
Speech Therapy having as its proper object the clinical
approach from the point of view of emission
Speech Therapy open to clinical approaches acting on
emission or on the reception, and also on central
processing
Speech Therapy centred on a few techniques and
protocols of rehabilitation
Speech Therapy involved with protocols of screening and
evaluation in the same way it is interested at protocols of
rehabilitation
Speech Therapist as a technician who helps medical
doctors in the therapeutic achievement
Speech Therapist as a technician able to do a functional
diagnosis of communication disorders and to develop a
therapeutic plan and strategies in order to obtain an
adequate rehabilitation
Speech Therapist more interested in certain techniques
than in their corresponding foundations
Speech Therapist interested in several techniques in
function of their corresponding foundations
Speech Therapist in the basis of a hierarchical pyramid
having doctors at the top: ST as a final executor of a
decision taken by someone else
Cooperative model of the Speech Therapist, engaged in
an individualized approach of the patient within an
interdisciplinary team
Bologna Process compelled to a curricular reorganization centered on student
work and responsibility, and encouraged a new competence-based model for
pedagogical methods and techniques.
UFP - BACHELOR IN SPEECH THERAPY
(approved by the Ministry since 2002 and recognized by the Professional
Association since 2003 as suitable for the formation of speech therapists)
OBJECTIVES
Students should develop specific competences of
● Prevention
● Evaluation
● Treatment
● Scientific study
of Human Communication Disorders, including
- All the processes and functions inherents to expression and
comprehension of oral and written language;
- Other forms of non verbal and verbal communication (for instance, using
structured symbols and gestures);
- Other related functions, such as swallowing.
BACHELOR IN SPEECH THERAPY
CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION AFTER BOLOGNA
1st-2d
Semesters
Anatomophysiology I
Methods / Techniques of Communication
English Language I
Biostatystics and Epidemiology
Basic Gestures in Health
Theories of Language and
Communication
Anatomophysiology II
Biophysics and Biomecanics
English Language II
Psycholinguistics and Language
Development
General Microbiology
Observation Training
3d-4th
Semesters
Phonetics and Phonology
Biochemistry
Politic Organization of Portugal and EU
Voice, Orofacial Motricity and Swallowing
Applied Psychology
Applied Psychopathology
Neurosciences and Neurolinguistics
Applied Otorhynolaryngology
Communication and Language in Children
Neurology and Neuromotor Pathologies
Ethics and Professional Deontology
Integration Training
5th-6th
Semesters
Audiology
Communication and Language in Adults
Applied Psychopedagogy
Methods and Techniques of Evaluation
and Intervention in Speech Therapy
Construction and Validation of
Instruments
Clinical Learning I
Professional Training I
Alternative / Augmentative Communication
Foreign Language
Psychomotricity
Early Intervention in Neonatology and
Pediatrics
Graduation Project
Clinical Learning II
Professional Training I
7th semester
Professional Training II
A Pedagogical Clinic of Speech Therapy was provided within UFP in order to
ensure students’ supervised clinical practices in real and authentic situations –
a pioneer project, completely new in Portugal and rare even in Europe, where
comparable units are yet quite hard to find.
This kind of assistance is offered to the academic community itself, but there
are also two mobile units of an Ambulatory Project of Oral and Public Health
that offer many screening services to the surrounding community in different
clinical valences, thus contributing to the signalling of patients and draining
a part of them to the Pedagogical Clinics of the University, including the one
of Speech Therapy.
More recently, a Master in Speech Therapy and a Doctorate in Language
Development and Disorders were created, and the Pedagogical Clinic is also the
place for the main part of the corresponding research.
MASTER IN SPEECH THERAPY
OBJECTIVES
Students should develop specific competences of this postgraduate level, such as:
● Administration of Health Units
● Intervention in the Community
● Scientific Research
● Education and Formation
● Training Orientation and Supervision
● Improvement of Basic Knowledge
● Specialization in two main Domains:
– Language in the Child
– Language in the Adult
CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION OF THE MASTER IN SPEECH THERAPY
1st
Semester
Administration of Health Services
Speech Therapy in Educative Contexts
Psycholinguistics and Neurolinguistics
Functional Neurology and Speech Therapy
Research Methods
Applied Phonetics
2d
Semester
Specialization in Language in the Child
Communication and Swallowing in the
Preverbal Period
Disorders of Oral Language in the Child
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Speech Therapy in Multideficiency
Disorders of Written Language in the Child
Specialization in Language in the Adult
Voice and Dysphonias
Communication and Interaction
Gerontology and Speech Therapy
Acquired Disorders of Communication and
Language
Speech Therapy and Neuromotor Pathology
3th
Semester
Hearing Processing and Speech Therapy
Expressive Therapies
Orofacial Motricity and Swallowing in the Child
Speech Therapy and Neuromotor Pathology
Clinical Cases, Orientation and Supervision of
Professional Training
Professional Voice
Phonostomatology
Expressive Therapies
Neurogenic and Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
Clinical Cases, Orientation and Supervision of
Professional Training
4th
Semester
Project / Dissertation
DOCTORATE IN
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS
OBJECTIVES
Students should develop knowledge and competences
allowing them to deal with problems of language, either
concerning its development, either its disorders.
The doctorate provides two differentiation areas:
● Psycho and Neurolinguistic Development
● Language Disorders.
These specialities fall within the general scope of the thesis
to be developped, corresponding to main areas in which the
teaching staff has been involved, engaged in projects of
national and international research, and resulting in a very
considerable number of scientific papers and "products"
such as new diagnostic, therapeutic and educational
approaches.
CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION OF THE
DOCTORATE IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS
Curricular Part (Doctorate Course)
Research Methods
1st
Semester Language and Verbal Communication
Paralanguage and Non Verbal Communication
Language Processing
Brain and Language
Language Development
2d
Semester Language Disorders in Educative Contexts
Language Disorders in Clinical Contexts
Doctorate Thesis
RESEARCH GROUPS
Advisors work several lines of research in labs of different Faculties and different University
institutions, such as screening mobile units of the Ambulatory Project of Oral and Public Health,
Pessoainhas kindergarden, Pedagogical Clinic of Speech Therapy, and others – where students
can obtain data and some kind of support.
UFP is the Portuguese Higher Learning institution with more publications in
this field.
Cadernos de Comunicação e Linguagem (“Notebooks of Communication
and Language”), for instance, is a periodical publication of UFP Press (1
volume, several numbers each year) which presents not only the best works of
UFP researchers and students, but also those of other national and foreign
prestigiated institutions (works in English and French are welcome!).
A large interdisciplinary team with six speech therapists, two psychologists and
three doctors acting in different domains provide most part of the clinical work
with patients, which are sometimes examined and treated in cooperation with
professionals from other Pedagogical Clinics of the University.
For some patients, this kind of approach is unique in the town and even in the
country. University Fernando Pessoa do it with no more taxes than public
hospitals, and accomplishes in this way very important tasks of academic
extension and social engagement with health and social problems of its
surrounding community and the town in general.
A large swiming-pool provides new contexts for the approach of
some selected patients (e.g. autists)
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
Curricular changes
- A continuous debate on Bologna objectives was carried
out with other national and foreign Higher Learning institutions
(e.g. Speech Therapy working group within the Group
implementing Bologna in the country as a whole, according with
CPLOL definition of skills, etc.)
- An attentive internal reflexion was made, since 2002 (when
the Bachelor in Speech Therapy started), about Bologna
objectives, in order to set up common criteria in that field
• The obtention of a national consensus among Higher
Education institutions about the main goals for the formation
of speech therapists
• The construction of a common space for European
Higher Education institutions, allowing the effective mobility of
students
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
Curricular changes (cont.)
• Not forgeting the aim of building up a common space for
Lusophone Higher Education institutions (together with other
countries speaking Portuguese): Fortaleza Declaration, 2004
Fev. 2003 (UFP, Porto, Portugal): I Luso-Brazilian Symposium of
Speech Therapy / Phonoaudiology and Lusophony
Fev. 2005 (UFP, Porto, Portugal): II Luso-Brazilian Symposium of
Speech Therapy / Audiophonology after Bologna
Fev. 2007 (UFP, Porto, Portugal): III Luso-Brazilian Symposium of
Speech Therapy / Contexts of Audiophonology
Aug. 2009 (UMESP & UFP, S. Bernardo do Campo, SP Brazil): IV
Luso-Brazilian Symposium of Speech Therapy • I Luso-Brazilian
Symposium for Health
• A model of Competence Based Learning (centered on
student’s work)
Some UFP events in the area of Speech Therapy
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
Curricular changes (cont.)
Consequently, the weight of certain components was reinforced:
- Experimental work
● Skills in research methodologies and experimentation developped in
each curricular unit
● Specific curricular units conceived to reinforce such skills, e.g.
“Construction and Validation of Instruments” (5th semester), “Project of
Graduation” (6th semester) - both recently introduced in the curricular
organization
● Scientific articles written in response to the “Call for Papers” of a
periodical publication of UFP Press in this area - with a good structure and
respecting the Editorial Rules of UFP and its Manual for Monographs (in
several moments along graduate and pos-graduate programs)
● Experiences in the classroom: a part of daily academic activities
since the 1st semester (for instance, in the matter of “Theories of Language
and Communication”)
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
Curricular changes (cont.)
The reinforcement of certain components (cont.)
- Work of Project
A whole work to develop, but also a curricular unit (with specific formation
on research and presentation of scientific works). In the end, there is a
presentation, discussion with the jury and defense.
- Work within an interdisciplinary team
Speech Therapy is based on different scientific domains: biomedical
sciences, language, behaviour and educational sciences. Teachers are then
asked to integrate knowledges coming from many different areas, supporting
this practice on the Pedagogical Clinic of Speech Therapy. This one
articulates clinical activities of speech therapists with those of psychologues,
psychomotricists and doctors of different specialities.
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
Curricular changes (conclusion)
Speech therapy in UFP: theoretical, practical, contact, project, experimental and training
components in the curricular organization pre and post-Bologna (comparing both plans).
One can see the reinforcement of experimental components (practical courses, training…), leading
to an increased ratio between experimental and theoretical courses (results from the Working
Group for the study of the Concretization of Bologna in UFP).
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
Pedagogical Clinic of Speech Therapy
-
Clinical practice
• Supervised clinical practice and training along the Bac. in Speech Therapy
• Training orientation and supervision during the Master in Speech Therapy
-
Assistencial work
• Academic community
• Surrounding population
• Cases refered by the staff or by accredited / partner institutions
-
Scientific research
• Bachelor (individual works and group works, Project of Graduation)
• Master (individual works and group works, Master Dissertation)
• Doctorate (individual works and group works, PhD Thesis)
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
UFP: Directions for Scientific Research in Speech Therapy
-
Hearing and Equillibrium
-
Phonation and Speech
-
Oral Language and Communication
-
Written Language and Communication
-
Non Verbal Communication
-
Swallowing and Stomatognatic Functions
-
Epidemiology and Community Intervention
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
More success!
- A good predefinition of expected competences for each
curricular unit (coordination work)
- Recovery and stimulus to the participation in the classroom
(more control upon presences, more learning opportunities)
- Debate of the most important notions
- Tutorial sessions to inform, to discuss and orient works, to
indicate sources and references, to give access to materials,
train selected techniques, reinforce some competences, obtain
counselling, provide remediation of certain deficits, and a
second chance if necessary
- Frequent practical works for training of most important skills
- A continuous evaluation as the general rule; formative Vs.
summative, auto Vs. hetero-evaluation
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
More success!
- More extra-curricular work (events, PASOP, screenings outside,
etc.): considered as relevant in the scope of certain curricular units
and as a Supplement to Diploma
- Validation of competences acquired elsewhere (more than one
itinerary to obtain competences)
- Project methodology: a specific curricular unit
- Publication of the best works
- New chances by means of the internationalization of the
institution: training, orientation and supervision received from other
national and foreign institutions who set bilateral agreements (e.g.
UNIMESP), formal exchange programs (Erasmus, Alban, Erasmus
Mundus…); participation in NETQUES, the CPLOL proposal for
Academic Networks to the European Commission (“Network for
Tuning Standards & Quality of Educational programmes for Speech
Language Therapy in Europe”)
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
The professional focus of learning
- Observation training (2d semester): by means of an unidirectional mirror,
placed between contiguous cabinets in the Pedagogical Clinic of Speech
Therapy (observers follow real consultations in an authentic context of clinical
work)
- Integration training (4th semester): students observe different contexts of
work of speech therapists
- Clinical Learning I and II (5th and 6th semesters): supervised clinical
practices in the Pedagogical Clinic of Speech Therapy (students consult,
make clinical registers, organize clinical files, reports and forwards);
screenings supported by PASOP; projects and partnerships with other
centers, providing new working contexts (e.g. advertisements about the
profession of speech therapist to the population served by PASOP,
assessment of communication skills of students of Journalism who are acting
in the TV lab of the UFP for reports, newscasts, etc.)
- Professionalizing training (6th and 7th semesters): screenings within the
population who seeks the services of the Pedagogical Clinic of Speech
Therapy (in order to obtain a convenient selection of patients); seminars and
case discussions; supervised clinical practices in authentic contexts of
clinical work (being oriented in training centres and supervised by the training
coordinator of the department of Speech Therapy)
UFP
SPEECH THERAPY AFTER BOLOGNA
The professional focus of learning (cont.)
- Psychopedagogy: this curricular unit prepares students to
integrate interdisciplinary teams acting in kindergardens, schools and
centers dealing with individuals who have special learning and
educational needs
- New careers and innovative areas: students are stimulated to
develop their academic works in new and challenging domains, and
originality is welcome!
- Master: providing competences of orientation and supervision of
clinical work and training (clinical practices in the Pedagogical Clinic
of Speech Therapy)
- Stimulating, on one hand, a personalized approach and the
perfect adaptation of the therapist to the limits and remaining
capacities of his client, and, on the other hand, the construction of
his own instruments and techniques when necessary, the
formation provided by University Fernando Pessoa is not quite only a
matter of applied sciences and techniques, it is also the practice of a
clinical art.
The professional focus of learning (conclusion)
- To learn how to learn, that’s the main competence!
The End

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