Extra Chapter PowerPoint Presentation Chapter 9x

Chapter 9
Music in Latin America
Chapter by: Thomas Turino
PowerPoint by: Sarah Pesi
An Andean Mestizo Fiesta in
Paucartambo, Peru
Festival in Paucartambo, Peru (July 15-18)
Honors Patron St. Virgen del Carmen
Primary participants and patrons are Mestizos + others come to watch
Tells different legends of the statute of the Patron St.
Costume dance ensembles perform different roles:
Chunchos (heroes+ Jungle Indians), Qollas (uncivilized outsiders), Saqros (devils +
Europeans), Doctores (government and lawyers who exploit people), black slaves, malaria
carriers, exploitive liquor traders, and young hippie tourist
Around 12 dance mestizo ensemble perform each with their own band
Music based on local genres, European style music, and a blend of both (Orquesta)
Festival that takes place all throughout the streets
Sociocultural Heritages and
Historical Background
Very diverse in culture and music
Brazil contains three different groups in a single countryAfrican cultural enclaves, European influences, and Amazonian influences
Common historical experiences
Iberian colonialism (16th century), contemporary nation-states (19th
century), North American cultural and economic dominance (20th
Iberian influence greatest- Spanish, Catholicism, and music
Iberian combines with local for unique blends in each region
Different cultures: Armenian highland, Native American, North
America, African, European, mestizos
3 biggest- Mestizos, Native American, and African American
Mestizo Musical Values and
Musical Style
Mestizo indicates a mix between European and local Native American blending
of culture
Most are sung in Spanish
Style and mix of indigenous with European vary depending on region and even
regions are very diverse
Typical features include: Costumed dance, European stringed instruments,
costumed dance, guitars (has the most guitars in the region), military band
traditions, indigenous flutes and percussion, as well as modern north American
instruments, European scales and harmony , parallel thirds, Strophic form,
Iberian verse type, six-line stanzas, combinations of duple and triple rhythms,
waltz time and jig time, sesquilteara,
Three types of ensembles in Paucartambo- brass bands, side blown flute and
drum ensembles, and orchestras typicas \
Major Pervuvian Genres: wayno, marinera, yaravi
Wanyo and maneria are danced and yaravi is serious
Mestizo Musical Values and
Musical Style (continued)
Faster pace genres: marinera, joropo (Venezuelan) , and Mexican son
Mexico’s most important mestizo song-dance genre: the son
One type of Mexican son is the jarocho which is what the 1950;’s Richie
Valen “La Bamba” is based off of
Peru and Southern Bolivia- use indigenous and Spanish language but
Mexico like most other Latin American regions have more of a European
influence and use only Spanish
Types of Genres in Mexico: Jarocho, hausteca ensemble, mariachi groups
( became popular after Mexican Revolution and was inundated into
popular culture+ Mexican cowboy is common dress now) , conjuntos
nortenos (similar to North American country today), and marimba (Africa
styles in music)
Most Mestizo characteristic were adopted from Catholic missionaries
Native American Musical
Values and Style
Native Americans in highland have interacted with Europeans and mestizos but
maintained there own cultural distinctions
Quechua and Amymara are the two major indigenous speakers/groups in PeruQuechua are in the majority
Emphasis on the importance of community life- group above self
Agricultural so tied to the land and depend on each other
Reciprocity, equalitarian relations, and community solidarity are core values
Brass bands
Different indigenous instruments for rainy season vs. dry season and some are played all
year round
String instruments were introduced by the Spanish
Perform music for community+ intercommunity festivals, and celebration os life cycles
as a community
Native American Musical
Values and Style (Continued)
Festivals have some Catholic but hold there indigenous deities supreme
Chrango holds a special place in Peruvian Native American culture
Played as community – all men are allowed to play regardless of musical
knowledge, nobody corrects musicians, women are segregated to singing and
dancing only, there is no leader, some instruments are played together such as the
panpipe , nobody is suppose to stand out but to “play as one”, collect
brainstorming for new music and rehearsal with unique rules, some communities
only play in groups but other groups play solos when by themselves
Suya are lowland Indians in the Amazon they have different rituals from the
highland Indians- For example: Suya focus more on vocals than wind
instruments like the highland Indians, they have more solos and have every sing
distinctive songs for there music blending, also have an ecological emphasis on
animals whereas highlands focus on agriculture which is there environment \
Suya have a variety of vocal genres and also use some instruments
Festivals are integral to both lowland and highland groups
African American Musical
Values and Styles
African heritage has diffused into Latin America with the use of cyclical
forms, call- and- response , interlocking melodic and percussion parts, and a
dense overlapping of textures
Marimba and also the currulao are examples of African styles whrer vocal
style is similar to African Shona
Instruments diffused include: African-styled drums, the musical bow, and
varrious lamellaphones
The Saramaka of Surinam is a runaway slave community that still keeps
alive many African styles
Many African religious traditions of African dieties, musical style and
words of religious songs vary similar to Africa
Afro – Brazilian culture includes Samba and the grassroots start-up of
Samba schools and the Carnival in Rio
Photo upper left –
Peruvian pipe playing
band. Lower leftCarnival in Rio. Upper
Right- Map of Latin
America. Lower RightFestival in
Paucartambo, Peru .
Images link and credits
found in Resources
MyMusicLab for Nettl, Excursions in World Music, 6e

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