Slide 1

Report
Eat to compete:
Dietary Supplements
• Dietary supplements
on the market are:
– NOT regulated
– Could contain illegal
substances
– Could be costly
– Could be harmful
Current laws
on dietary supplements
• No requirement for efficacy
(proof they do what they claim)
• No requirement for safety
(proof they cause no harm)
FDA initiatives
• Implement process to evaluate dietary
supplements
• Set standards for consistency
• Provide guidance on what claims can be
made
Advice for youth
• Consult with a healthcare professional,
MD, pharmacist, or registered dietitian
Dietary supplements include
• Any product intended to supplement
dietary intake
• Examples
– Vitamins/Minerals
– Herbs and Botanicals
– Protein/Amino Acids
Herbs and Botanicals
• Dietary supplements that contain
extracts or active ingredients from
plants
• Some are harmful
– Kava Kava is banned in Canada
St. John’s Wort
• Suggested to help depression
• Negative side effects
• No tests on long-term safety
Ginkgo biloba
• Increases blood flow to brain
• Large doses can cause restlessness,
diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
Echinacea
• Believed to stimulate immune system
• Studies use echinacea concentrate - not
the same as what is sold
Ginseng
• Clinical tests show mixed results for
claims
Green tea
• May boost immune system, increase
metabolism, act as antioxidant, lower
cholesterol and triglycerides
Ephedra
• Central nervous system stimulant and
decongestant
– Claims:
• Increases body fat loss
• Improves athletic performance by increasing
alertness and mental performance
Ephedra
• Negative side effects
• irregular heart rate, elevated blood pressure,
dizziness, headache, heart attack, stroke,
seizure, psychosis
• 155 deaths and over 16,000 side effects
• FDA banned in April, 2004
Risks of Herbal Supplements
• No standards exist
• Little scientific evidence is available
• Can be potent
Resources
• Iowa Botanicals Research Center
– http://www.cdfin.iastate.edu/botanical/ind
ex.htm
• Iowa State University Extension
– http://www.extension.iastate.edu/nutrition
/supplements/
Creatine
• Natural substance produced by
body
• Claims:
– Improve muscle power during high
intensity and short duration exercise
Creatine problems
– Could cause muscle cramps, headaches,
diarrhea, and gastrointestinal pain; stress
on kidneys
– Long term effects are unknown
– YOUTH: muscles develop more quickly
than bone… increases risk of fractures
Creatine Summary
• Pros
– Has been proven to increase energy in short
duration, repetitive exercises (<60 sec)
• Cons
•
•
•
•
No benefit in aerobic ability or endurance
Weight gained is mostly water weight and not muscle,
which can hinder performance
Negative side effects are a possibility
Not approved by FDA and labels may be incorrect
Protein/Amino Acids
• Essential macronutrient found in
the body and in food
• Protein supplement food sources
include
• Egg
• Soy
• Whey
Amino Acids Supplements
•
•
Pre-digested protein
Claim
•
•
Because they are pre-digested, they will be
absorbed better.
Fact
•
The body gets better use out of amino acids
if they are broken down from whole foods.
Amino Acid Supplements
Amino 2000
Amino Acid
Supplement
Chicken
Breast
100% Whey
Protein
Supplement
Protein/Serving
30 g /18
tablets
31 g / 3.5
ounces
23 g / 1 scoop
Price/31g of
Protein
$4.03
$0.62
$0.93
Amino Acid Supplements
Amino Acids (grams)
Amino Acid Profiles
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Glutamine
Alanine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Valine
3.5 oz
1 1/3 scoops
18 tablets
Chicken Breast
Whey Protein
Supplement
Amino Acid
Supplement
Food or Supplement
Protein
• Claims for supplementation
• Supports muscle growth
• Increases muscle strength and mass
• Improves recovery
• Problems with supplementation
•
•
•
•
Dehydration
Stress on kidneys
Increased calcium excretion
Reduced intake of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and
phytochemicals
Adolescent growth
• Rapid growth and change increases
need for iron and calcium
Iron
• Anemia
common among adolescents
--> inadequate diet
• Food sources
lean meat, fish, dried fruits, nuts,
wholegrain breads
• Supplementation
may improve learning, memory, and
performance of iron-deficient adolescents
Calcium
• Deficiency
decreased bone mineral density
-->inadequate diet
• Food sources
dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese)
• Supplementation
beneficial if unable to get from food sources
If Using Supplements
• Choose supplements with:
– USP on the label
– Consumer Lab seal of approval
– Reputable drug companies
If Using Supplements
• Watch for inaccurate and inappropriate
health claims
1. Promises a quick fix
2. Sounds too good to be true
3. Lists of “good” and “bad” foods
If Using Supplements
• Remember that they don’t have to…
– prove safety prior to marketing/selling
– prove efficacy prior to marketing/selling
– meet any manufacturing standards
Conclusion
• Supplements are not needed with a
balanced diet
• Supplements are not regulated on the
market and can be unsafe
• Choose wisely and consult with a
healthcare professional for more
information
• Funded by: Iowa Beef Industry Council, Midwest
Dairy Association
• Prepared by: Ruth Litchfield, PhD, RD, LD
– Contributions by Emily Lasley, Lindsey Metcalf, Andrea
Seminara and Karin Westberg
. . . and justice for all
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its
programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender,
religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family
status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Many materials can be
made available in alternative formats for ADA clients. To file a complaint of
discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten
Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or
call 202-720-5964.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June
30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Stanley R.
Johnson, director, Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State University of
Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa.

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