Eat to compete: Dietary Supplements • Dietary supplements on the market are: – NOT regulated – Could contain illegal substances – Could be costly – Could be harmful Current laws on dietary supplements • No requirement for efficacy (proof they do what they claim) • No requirement for safety (proof they cause no harm) FDA initiatives • Implement process to evaluate dietary supplements • Set standards for consistency • Provide guidance on what claims can be made Advice for youth • Consult with a healthcare professional, MD, pharmacist, or registered dietitian Dietary supplements include • Any product intended to supplement dietary intake • Examples – Vitamins/Minerals – Herbs and Botanicals – Protein/Amino Acids Herbs and Botanicals • Dietary supplements that contain extracts or active ingredients from plants • Some are harmful – Kava Kava is banned in Canada St. John’s Wort • Suggested to help depression • Negative side effects • No tests on long-term safety Ginkgo biloba • Increases blood flow to brain • Large doses can cause restlessness, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting Echinacea • Believed to stimulate immune system • Studies use echinacea concentrate - not the same as what is sold Ginseng • Clinical tests show mixed results for claims Green tea • May boost immune system, increase metabolism, act as antioxidant, lower cholesterol and triglycerides Ephedra • Central nervous system stimulant and decongestant – Claims: • Increases body fat loss • Improves athletic performance by increasing alertness and mental performance Ephedra • Negative side effects • irregular heart rate, elevated blood pressure, dizziness, headache, heart attack, stroke, seizure, psychosis • 155 deaths and over 16,000 side effects • FDA banned in April, 2004 Risks of Herbal Supplements • No standards exist • Little scientific evidence is available • Can be potent Resources • Iowa Botanicals Research Center – http://www.cdfin.iastate.edu/botanical/ind ex.htm • Iowa State University Extension – http://www.extension.iastate.edu/nutrition /supplements/ Creatine • Natural substance produced by body • Claims: – Improve muscle power during high intensity and short duration exercise Creatine problems – Could cause muscle cramps, headaches, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal pain; stress on kidneys – Long term effects are unknown – YOUTH: muscles develop more quickly than bone… increases risk of fractures Creatine Summary • Pros – Has been proven to increase energy in short duration, repetitive exercises (<60 sec) • Cons • • • • No benefit in aerobic ability or endurance Weight gained is mostly water weight and not muscle, which can hinder performance Negative side effects are a possibility Not approved by FDA and labels may be incorrect Protein/Amino Acids • Essential macronutrient found in the body and in food • Protein supplement food sources include • Egg • Soy • Whey Amino Acids Supplements • • Pre-digested protein Claim • • Because they are pre-digested, they will be absorbed better. Fact • The body gets better use out of amino acids if they are broken down from whole foods. Amino Acid Supplements Amino 2000 Amino Acid Supplement Chicken Breast 100% Whey Protein Supplement Protein/Serving 30 g /18 tablets 31 g / 3.5 ounces 23 g / 1 scoop Price/31g of Protein $4.03 $0.62 $0.93 Amino Acid Supplements Amino Acids (grams) Amino Acid Profiles 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Glutamine Alanine Isoleucine Leucine Valine 3.5 oz 1 1/3 scoops 18 tablets Chicken Breast Whey Protein Supplement Amino Acid Supplement Food or Supplement Protein • Claims for supplementation • Supports muscle growth • Increases muscle strength and mass • Improves recovery • Problems with supplementation • • • • Dehydration Stress on kidneys Increased calcium excretion Reduced intake of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals Adolescent growth • Rapid growth and change increases need for iron and calcium Iron • Anemia common among adolescents --> inadequate diet • Food sources lean meat, fish, dried fruits, nuts, wholegrain breads • Supplementation may improve learning, memory, and performance of iron-deficient adolescents Calcium • Deficiency decreased bone mineral density -->inadequate diet • Food sources dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese) • Supplementation beneficial if unable to get from food sources If Using Supplements • Choose supplements with: – USP on the label – Consumer Lab seal of approval – Reputable drug companies If Using Supplements • Watch for inaccurate and inappropriate health claims 1. Promises a quick fix 2. Sounds too good to be true 3. Lists of “good” and “bad” foods If Using Supplements • Remember that they don’t have to… – prove safety prior to marketing/selling – prove efficacy prior to marketing/selling – meet any manufacturing standards Conclusion • Supplements are not needed with a balanced diet • Supplements are not regulated on the market and can be unsafe • Choose wisely and consult with a healthcare professional for more information • Funded by: Iowa Beef Industry Council, Midwest Dairy Association • Prepared by: Ruth Litchfield, PhD, RD, LD – Contributions by Emily Lasley, Lindsey Metcalf, Andrea Seminara and Karin Westberg . . . and justice for all The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Many materials can be made available in alternative formats for ADA clients. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call 202-720-5964. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Stanley R. Johnson, director, Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa.