Activity 2.2.1 - Life Science Academy

Report
Unit Two

First and foremost the human hear t is a…
 PUMP!
 A mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or
move liquids, compress gases, or force air into inflatable
objects such as tires.

When the heart stops pumping=death
 Unless the heart is restarted or intervention is used
▪ Anna Garcia
 Blood stopped flowing
 Lacking the resources normally carried by the blood
▪ including oxygen and nutrients,
 Ms. Garcia’s body cells could no long survive and she
died

Pumps in the home:
 water faucet
 toilet
 the washing machine
 the car
 the air conditioner
 the refrigerator
 liquid soap dispensers
 spray bottles

Build a simple pump using provided materials
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Sketch out a few ideas
Get the OK from me to start testing
Build & Test…Trial & Error
Take GREAT notes!
Success=moving 150ml of water from one flask
to the other
 Explain two ways the human heart is similar to a
mechanical pump.
 Conclusion questions due tomorrow!

Cool Heart Facts
 Your heart beats about 100,000 times in one day and about
35 million times in a year.
 During an average lifetime, the human heart will beat more
than 2.5 billion times.
 The heart pumps about 1 million barrels of blood during an
average lifetime--that's enough to fill more than 3 super
tankers.

Essential Question 1
 What is a pump?

Key Terms
 Pump
 Fluid Mechanics
 Positive Displacement Pump
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Aorta
Aortic Valve
Artery
Atrium
Cardiovascular
System
Cell
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Histology
Inferior Vena Cava
Mitral Valve
Pericardium
Superior Vena Cava
Tissue
Tricuspid Valve
Valve

Three Diagrams of the heart
1. Exterior
2. Internal Ventral
3. Internal Dorsal Blood Circulation (Lungs/Body)

Complete first with colored pencils, markers,
crayons then…
 Get my OK
 Add “extras” from craft room as time allows
 Due Monday!
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Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
Aorta
Right Pulmonary
Veins
Left Pulmonary Veins
Right Pulmonary
Arteries
Left Pulmonary
Arteries
Right Lung
Left Lung
Body (head, trunk)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Enters into Superior
& Inferior Vena Cava
Through the Right
Atrium
Tricuspid Valve
Right Ventricle
Into Pulmonary Valve
Pulmonary Artery
Thru to the Lungs
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Back into Pulmonary
Vein
Thru the Left Atrium
Mitral Valve
(Bicuspid)
Left Ventricle
Thru the Aortic Valve
Into the Aorta
To the Circulatory
System

We’ll come back to 2.2.2.
 Dissection
 Microscopy
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
Next week
Now we’re moving on to 2.3.1

Heart Disease Facts
 71,000,000 Americans have heart disease
 403 billion $$ is spent on heart disease in the U.S.
 Every 34 seconds an American dies for CVD

Essential Question 1
 In what ways can technology be used to collect
and analyze cardiovascular data?
1. Transport _____ and ______ to all cells.
2. Remove ____ and _________ from all
cells.
3. Circulate _______ for chemical regulation.
4. Help maintain body __________.
(temperature, hormones, oxygen, carbon
dioxide, nutrients, metabolic wastes)

One complete sequence of pumping/filling:
 Contraction phase is called systole
 Relaxation phase is called diastole



Average adult at rest completes 75 cardiac
cycles per minute or 0.8 seconds per cycle
Heart Beat
Heart Attack
1.
SA Node (sinoatrial node)
 Pacemaker
 Sets timing and rhythm of heart beat
 Sends electrical impulse similar to nerve
impulse
 Triggers cells of both atria to contract in unison
 Impulse travels thorough cardiac cells to AV
node (atrioventricular node)
2.
AV Node (atrioventricular node)
 Located in wall between right atrium and right
ventricle
 Delays spreading the electrical impulses for 0.1
seconds to ensure the atria are completely
empty
 Sends impulses to specialized muscle fibers and
Purkinje fibers, which conduct signal to apex of
heart and induce ventricular contraction
Cardiac Conduction System
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
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Activity 2.3.1
Biomedical Science Experimental Design
Protocol
Introduction to Vernier Probes
The arrows on the two parts are pointed in the same
direction.
It may be necessary to hold the receiver very close to
the cylinders to initially pick-up the signal…once the
signal is detected, the receiver can be moved farther
away.
The receiver is within 80 cm of the hand grips.
There are no electrical devices within 25 centimeters of
the receiver (including SensorDAQ, computers, cell
phones, electrical lab equipment).
Have test subjects from different lab teams maintain a
distance of at least 2 m from each other.
No other receivers or transmitters are near the sensor.
The contacts are clean.
2.
Essential Questions
What is the relationship between blood
pressure and cardiovascular function?
What factors can influence blood pressure?

Why is blood pressure important?

1.

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How to Write a Scientific Laboratory Report
Key Terms
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Blood Pressure
Cardiology
Diastole
Diastolic Pressure
Electrocardiogram (EKG)
Hypothesis
Sinoatrial Node
Sphygmomanometer
Systole
Systolic Pressure

Blood is a fluid

As fluids move through a
pipe there is pressure
exerted on the wall of the
pipe= hydrostatic
pressure

When blood moves
through blood vessels
(e.g., veins & arteries)
there is pressure on the
walls of the vessels=
blood pressure
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Pressure on arteriole
wall when heart
contracts= systole
Pressure on arteriole
wall when heart
relaxes = diastole
Blood pressure = the
ratio of systolic to
diastolic pressures

Traditionally
measured in mm of
mercury
 Force that can support
a column of mercury
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
Taken in upper arm on
level with the heart
Example
Measurement
 120 / 70: Systolic=120
Diastolic=70
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MAP= Mean Arterial Pressure
Used to measure adequacy of blood getting to
vital tissues and organs
Calculated by following formula:
Systolic pressure + 2(Diastolic pressure)
3
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Clot formation
The effects of
high blood
pressure
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Part 1 (in-class today)
Part 2 (in-class today)
Conclusion questions (Due Tuesday the 25th)
Write a lab report (Due Thursday the 27th)
 Lab Report Protocol
 Lab Report Example

Monday is DISSECTION DAY!!!!
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
Please do not touch ANYTHING until directed
Please get into the following groups
AM
PM
Group 1
Makayla, Andrew
Harsh, Trey
Group 2
Lucy, Tyler, Makailah
Harrison, Braden
Group 3
Kanyon, Dakota
Candace, Chance
Group 4
Amber, Emily
Sonal, Marissa
Group 5
Elizabeth, Akeel
Emma, Whit
Group 6
Cole, Elaine
Nate, Kristina
Group 7
Alek, Nathan
Eric, Kaleb, Wade
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Read the introduction and the opening
paragraphs on page one of An Illustrated
Dissection Guide to the Mammalian Heart
Use the drawings and definitions as guides to
help you identify the structures of the heart.
Structures in italics should be located and
labeled on your heart
Place the heart in your
dissecting tray with the
ventral side facing up.
2. Observe the outside of
the heart.
3. The darker line running
from the upper right
diagonally to the lower
left is the coronary
artery.
4. The bottom of the heart
comes to a point called
the apex.
1.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
To the right and above the apex is the left
ventricle.
Use your finger to push on the outside wall of the
left ventricle. Notice how firm it is.
To the left and above the apex is the right
ventricle.
Use your finger and push on its outside wall.
Compare it to the left ventricle. Notice it
compresses easier than the left ventricular wall.
Differentiate between the functions of the left and
right ventricles. Use the Internet or other
resources for help, if needed…(time to work on
#12)
Above the ventricles is an
area called the base of
the heart. At each side
(left and right), there are
“ear like” tissue flaps
called the left and right
appendages, sometimes
called the left and right
auricles as well.
11. Under each appendage
are the left atrium and
the right atrium.
12. Explain the functions of
the left and right atria
…(time to work on #15)
10.
13.
14.
15.
Extending out of the
right atrium is the
superior vena cava
vein.
Place a probe into it
and see that it leads
directly into the right
atrium (this is a good
strategy to be sure it is
the correct structure).
Explain the function of
the superior vena
cava…(time to work on
#17)
Next to the superior vena cava is the aorta, a large
branching artery that leads to the left ventricle.
 The aorta has a branch called the brachiocephalic
artery. Place your finger or a probe into it and see
that it leads directly into the left ventricle.
 Explain the function of the aorta…(time to work
on #19)
 Look to the right (which is really the left), of the
aorta, and see the pulmonary veins. Use a probe
or your finger and see that they lead to the left
atrium.
 Explain the function of the pulmonary veins…(time
to work on #21)

At this point it should
look something
like…THIS
Take lots
of
pictures!!
Place the heart with the
ventral side facing you.
2. Find the right
appendage and the
right atrium.
3. Use the scalpel to cut
through the entire
length of both
structures.
4. Cut through to the
cavity – not through to
the other side.
1.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Gently pull back the tissue exposing the
inside of the cavity.
Look at the various tissues.
Use your metric ruler to measure the
thickness, in millimeters, of the atrium wall
(work on #28)
Observe the trabeculated (striated) lining of
the appendage and the smooth lining of the
atrium.
9.
10.
11.
Cut open the superior vena
cava and carefully pull back
the tissue. You should see
thin flaps of tissue that
almost look like leaflets.
This is the tricuspid valve.
Based on the name
tricuspid, how many
leaflets should you see?
(#31)
Feel the leaflets with your
finger and describe them in
the space below (time to
work on #32)
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Observe the fibrous chords
that are attached to the valve
and help hold it in place.
These are called the chordae
tendineae and they extend to
the right ventricle.
The chordae tendineae are
attached to the papillary
muscle, which holds the fibers
to the wall of the ventricle.
Both are essential for the
valve to work correctly.
Describe the function of the
tricuspid valve in the space
below…(work on #36)
Use the scalpel to make a
long incision through the
wall of the left ventricle.
Carefully pull the wall
back and observe the
various tissues.
18. Use the metric ruler to
measure the thickness of
the wall of the left
ventricle (in millimeters).
Record the
measurement: _________
(#38).
17.
Compare the thickness of the wall of the left
ventricle to the wall of the right ventricle.
Which wall is thicker? ____________ (#39)
20. In the space below, describe the function of
the left ventricle and explain how that
relates to the difference in the wall thickness
of the left and right ventricles…(work on
#40)
19.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Find the mitral valve (orbicuspid valve) in the left
ventricle. Describe its appearance (#41) and explain its
function (#42).
Check which structure is the aorta by placing your finger
or a probe into it. It should lead directly to the left
ventricle.
Cut open the aorta and observe the thickness of the
tissue. This may also get you a better view of mitral
valve.
Cut open the other major blood vessels you labeled in
part one. In the space below, describe the differences
you observe between the different vessels.
Based on their different functions, suggest an
explanation for the differences in size and thickness of
the different vessels (time to work on #43).
Use your scalpel to cut the heart almost in half. The
cut should go through the middle but not all the way
through to the other side. Leave a flap holding the
organ together.
27. Use a probe as a pointer and starting with the
superior vena cava, trace the flow of blood through
the heart. In the space below, list the structures in
the order the blood would meet them during its
travel through the heart. Include the valves, the
lungs and the extremities of your body on your list.
28. Reattach any labels that may have come off both
hearts. Have your teacher check your dissection and
your external labels.
26.

Go to the Public Broadcasting Service website for
the science television show NOVA and examine
the pictures of hearts following heart attacks.
 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/troubled.html.
 Take notes on appearance of the heart following a heart
attack and describe how it differs from a healthy heart.

Go to the Internet Pathology Laboratory for
Medical Education and view the images of hearts
and heart tissues damaged by heart attacks.
 http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/CVHTML/CV02
1.html.

Complete Conclusion questions 1 to 4
 (due tomorrow)
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Tomorrow: Back to 2.2.2 Blood Pressure
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Need to re-due an run?
Work on lab reports (due Thursday)
Questions & Answers
Excel help
Wednesday: Heart Quiz- Structure and Flow
 Microscopy with heart tissue
 Start 2.2.3 The EKG
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Follow the example
Use your documentation protocol
Pick Any Two
 EKG Technician
 Medical Data Analyst
 Cardiac Technician
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
In what ways can technology be used to
collect and analyze cardiovascular data?
What factors can influence heart rate?
What is the relationship between blood
pressure and cardiovascular function?
What factors can influence blood pressure?
What is an EKG?
How can an EKG be used in the diagnosis
and treatment of heart disease?
Remember-The heart has its own
electrical system
 Do you remember the three parts?

1. SA - Sinoatrial Node
2. AV - Atrioventricular Node
3. Purkinje Fibers
 Cardiac Conduction System

SA Node (sinoatrial node)
 Pacemaker- sets timing and rhythm of heart beat
 Sends electrical impulse- triggers atria to contract in
unison
 Impulse travels to AV node

AV Node (atrioventricular node)
 Located in wall between right atrium and right ventricle
 Delays impulses to ensure the atria are empty
 Sends impulses to specialized muscle fibers and

Purkinje fibers
 Conduct signal to apex of heart and induce ventricular
contraction
 This same current
passes through body
to skin (cool, huh?)
 Current is measured
with an
electrocardiogram
(EKG or ECG)
P Through T
= Systolic
P = P Wave:
Before ATRIAL
contraction
T Through P
= Diastolic
T= T Wave:
Ventricles relax
QRS ComplexImpulse causing
ventricle
contraction
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Evidence for disorders
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abnormal slowing
speeding
irregular rhythms
injury to muscle tissue (angina)
death of muscle tissue (myocardial infarction)
The length of an interval indicates whether an impulse
is following its normal pathway
 A long interval reveals that an impulse has been slowed or
has taken a longer route
 A short interval reflects an impulse which followed a
shorter route. If a complex is absent, the electrical impulse
did not rise normally or was blocked at that part of the
heart
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Lack of normal depolarization of the atria can
cause the P wave to be absent.
An absent QRS complex after a normal P wave
indicates the electrical impulse was blocked
before it reached the ventricles.
Abnormally shaped complexes result from
abnormal spread of the impulse through the
muscle tissue (e.g. myocardial infarction)
Electrical patterns may also be changed by
metabolic abnormalities and by various
medicines.
Complete your EKG
1.
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2.
3.
4.
Distinguish intervals
Record timing
Compare to average timing
Compare with your partner’s EKG
Conduct alternate limb EKG
Answer conclusion questions
 Analyze EKG intervals
 Diagnose potential problems

Micorsope Parts:
http://virtualurchin.stanford.edu/microtutorial.htm
 I’ll check your understanding before you move on

Measurement with the Microscope:
http://virtualurchin.stanford.edu/microscope.htm

I’ll check your understanding before you move on

Obtain prepared slides of
 Artery- Arteries have a thicker more regular tunica
media. In histological preparations they more often
retain their round profiles when cut in cross section.
 Vein- Veins tend often to look "collapsed" or flattened
under the same circumstances. In addition, the tunica
media of veins is much thinner than in arteries, and
the adventitia is the thickest layer.
 Capillary- Much smaller in size and easy to recognize

Obtain prepared slides of
 Artery
 Vein
 Capillary
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Observe the slides under the microscope.
In your journal
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Make sketches of each
Compare and contrast each
Write comparision in lab journal
I’ll come around and check
Essential Questions
1. What is the general composition of human blood?
2. Why is blood classified as a tissue?
3. What are the characteristics and function of red
blood cells?
4. What are the characteristics and functions of
white blood cells?
5. What are the characteristics and function of
platelets?
 Biopsy
 Erythrocyte
 Hemoglobin
 Histology
 Leukocyte
 Plasma
 Platelet
 Tissue

Quarts of blood?

 =5 (4.7 L, 10 pints)

% of person’s body
weight?
 15 million

 =8%

Travels how many
miles/day?
 60,000 mi/day
How many blood cells
die every day
% liquid and % solid?
 78% liquid and 22% solid

Major Components
1. Plasma
2. Red Blood Cells
3. White Blood Cells
4. Platelets
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Composition
 90% water
 ionic salts (electrolytes)
 soluble proteins

Functions
 Maintains homeostasis
 Correct function of muscles and nerves
 Transports soluble substances
 Carries factors needed for blood clotting
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Most abundant blood
cell
5.2 billion/mL of
blood
Mature cells lack a
nucleus
Average Lifespan:
120 Days
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Can be frozen for ten years
Hemoglobin makes up 33% of cell mass
Primary function is to transport oxygen
Help remove carbon dioxide
Produced in bone marrow
Travel single file through capillaries
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Largest of the blood cells
Normally 5000 to 10,000 WBC per mL blood
Variable life span – from a few days to years
Produced in bone marrow
Part of the immune system
Increase in number when infection or
inflammation is present
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Monocytes and Neutrophils
 Destroy bacteria and foreign materials
 Signal other immune cells
Lymphocytes:
 Destroy abnormal cells
 Produce antibodies
Eosinophils
 Kill multicellular parasites (e.g. blood fluke)
Basophils
 Destroy foreign material
 Involved in inflammation response & allergies
Formed in bone marrow
Not cells, are fragments of precursor
cells
 Lifespan—10 Days
 Help blood clot by forming “platelet
plugs”
 Stimulate other clotting factors
 Approximately 250,000 per mL of blood


Stop at #8 and
I’ll check your
work
 Stop at #16 and
I’ll check your
work
 Do not do #1920
 Conclusion
questions due
end of class
today


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Yesterday we learned that…
When the cell gets bigger its surface area to
volume ratio gets smaller.
 Small cube was 6:5=1.2
 Large cube was 3:5=0.6

As the volume of the cell increases so does
the surface area...however not to the same
extent.
Cube 1
Surface area: 6 sides x 12 = 6 cm2
Volume: 13 = 1 cm3
 Ratio = 6:1

Cube 2
Surface area: 6 sides x 32 = 54 cm2
Volume: 33 = 27 cm3
 Ratio = 2:1

Cube 3
Surface area: 6 sides x 42 = 96 cm2
Volume : 43 = 64 cm3
 Ratio = 1.5:1


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