Slide 1

Report
SURVEY TO MONITOR
IMPLEMENTATION OF NREGA
in
Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh
Centre for Budget and Governance
Accountability, New Delhi
Purposes
• To check whether there is awareness about NREGA and its various
aspects.
• To check conformity of the Schemes with Guidelines.
• To assess the difficulties faced by various players, including those
in-charge of implementing the Act, and see how they can be
addressed.
• To understand socio-economic context in which NREGA is
operating.
• To communicate to the workers about their rights under NREGA.
Survey Team
• 70 students from Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi
University and Hyderabad Central University.
• Co-ordinated by Kaustav, with supervision by Himanshu,
Deepak and Omkarnath, under the overall guidance of
Kamal Chenoy, Jean Dreze, Jayati Ghosh and Praveen
Jha.
• Fieldwork undertaken in May/June 2006 in 8 districts of 4
states.
Field surveys
State
Districts
Jharkhand
May
Latehar, Palamau
Madhya Pradesh
May
Barwani, Dhar
Chhattisgarh
May
Jashpur, Surguja
Andhra Pradesh
June
Rangareddy, Medak
Methodology
One block was chosen in each district. In each district, the teams surveyed
one block and in each block, at least 5 worksites were surveyed and
household surveys were undertaken in 2 villages.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
There were five exercises:
Worksite surveys – around 5 or 6 in each block.
Verification of Muster Rolls.
Random sample survey of at least 60 households in two selected villages.
Discussions on implementation issues with Gram Panchayat
representatives, Block Development Officer/Chief Executive Officer,
Panchayat Sevaks.
Public hearing to present main findings to local people and local authorities.
Each field survey involved about 20 days residence in the area by the
survey teams.
Overall socio-economic conditions
• Extreme backwardness in terms of availability of basic physical and
infrastructure and publicly delivered social services.
• Very depressed condition of the rural economy.
• Complete lack of adequate productive employment opportunities in
the areas, creating large scale open and disguised unemployment
and pressure for short term migration for work.
• Poor material condition of the local population, expressed most
sharply in inadequate nutrition and very low BMIs, as well as lack of
domestic assets for most of the people.
• Therefore, the urgent and pressing need for effectively
implementing the NREGA in these areas.
Most of the surveyed households came from
Scheduled Tribes, followed by Scheduled Castes.
CHHATTISGARH
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
ST
54.6
73.3
30.0
65.6
57.2
SC
14.6
5.0
38.8
23.3
17.8
OBC
10.7
18.3
28.8
11.1
15.6
Gen
20.0
3.3
2.5
9.5
Most of the surveyed households had little or no land, and
in general landholding was not enough to ensure livelihood
for the household, except for very few. Dalits held the least
land, followed by Adivasis.
CHHATISGAR
H
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
Landless
12.1
23.5
18.7
12.5
15.9
0 to 1
17.1
9.6
25.3
35.2
19.9
1 to 2.5
26.1
20.9
18.7
31.8
24.7
2.5 to 5
27.6
28.7
26.7
12.5
24.9
5 to 10
8.5
11.3
6.7
4.5
8.2
10 and above
8.5
6.1
4.0
3.4
6.3
Acres
Patterns of taking credit varied across states
CHHATISGARH
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
Have not
taken
credit
73.2
62.5
15.0
43.3
55.8
Have
taken
credit
26.8
37.5
85.0
56.7
44.2
But a lot of credit still came from moneylenders,
traders and relatives. Reliance on moneylenders is
as much as on institutional sources (37%).
CHHATISGARH
MP
Government
3.6
2.3
Cooperative/SHG
12.7
20.5
Bank
32.7
Institutional
49.1
Employer/landlord
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
2.0
1.8
2.9
2.0
8.7
9.1
44.1
11.8
26.6
31.8
47.1
15.7
37.2
2.3
1.5
0.9
Moneylender
20.0
45.5
36.8
49.0
37.2
Shopkeeper/trader
9.1
6.8
1.5
25.5
10.1
Relatives
20.0
4.5
13.2
2.0
10.6
Other
1.8
9.1
7.8
4.1
The major reasons for indebtedness are consumption
loans and loans for marriages/rituals. Medical expenses
are also significant.
ST
SC
OBC
General
Medical
16.5
15.2
14.6
Education
1.7
4.3
consumption
20.0
10.9
12.2
11.1
marriage/ceremony
20.9
15.2
17.1
33.3
land/building
7.0
30.4
14.6
11.1
Other productive
25.2
21.7
26.8
33.3
Repayment
0.9
Others
7.8
2.2
14.6
11.1
Most people lived in kuccha houses, with Adivasis being
the worst off. Most (84 per cent) received nothing from
Indira Awas Yojana.
Per cent of surveyed population living in kuccha houses
97.8
100
95
92.2
90.8
90.5
90
85
80
77.5
75
70
65
60
55
50
Chhattisgarh
Madhya Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Jharkhand
Total
Table 13: Percentage distribution by level of BMI by age group and sex
Age group
0 to 5
5 to 15
15 to 60
60 and above
BMI
Male
Female
total
male
female
Total
male
female
Total
Less than 15
50.0
66.7
60.9
40.9
53.8
47.9
1.6
3.8
2.9
15 to 18.5
25.0
20.0
21.7
31.8
30.8
31.3
29.5
20.5
24.5
13.6
7.7
10.4
18.0
26.9
23.0
8.7
9.1
7.7
8.3
49.2
44.9
46.8
13.3
8.7
4.5
2.1
1.6
3.8
2.9
male
female
total
40.0
25.0
66.7
20.0
37.5
33.3
20.0
25.0
20.0
12.5
Chhatisgarh
18.5 to 20
20 to 25
25.0
25 and above
Andhra Pradesh
Less than 15
54.5
37.5
47.4
52.9
45.5
48.7
1.8
1.3
1.5
20.0
15 to 18.5
27.3
37.5
31.6
47.1
45.5
46.2
21.4
32.0
27.5
20.0
18.5 to 20
9.1
12.5
10.5
28.6
14.7
20.6
20.0
12.5
5.3
42.9
42.7
42.7
40.0
5.4
9.3
20 to 25
25 and above
9.1
9.1
5.1
5.3
7.7
62.5
46.2
7.7
25.0
30.8
7.6
12.5
7.7
25.0
8.3
Jharkhand
Less than 15
47.5
44.8
46.4
74.5
62.2
68.5
3.7
2.1
2.9
15 to 18.5
30.0
20.7
26.1
17.0
28.9
22.8
46.9
43.6
45.1
75.0
18.5 to 20
10.0
6.9
8.7
2.1
4.4
3.3
30.9
29.8
30.3
25.0
20 to 25
7.5
10.3
8.7
6.4
4.4
5.4
18.5
23.4
21.1
25 and above
5.0
17.2
10.1
1.1
0.6
50.0
50.0
33.3
25.0
8.3
Total
Less than 15
49.2
50.0
49.5
61.6
55.9
58.7
2.5
2.4
2.5
6.3
5.9
6.1
15 to 18.5
28.8
23.1
26.1
26.7
33.3
30.2
34.3
32.8
33.5
43.8
41.2
42.4
18.5 to 20
8.5
5.8
7.2
4.7
4.3
4.5
26.3
24.3
25.2
31.3
17.6
24.2
20 to 25
8.5
7.7
8.1
5.8
6.5
6.1
34.8
36.0
35.5
18.8
23.5
21.2
25 and above
5.1
13.5
9.0
1.2
0.6
2.0
4.5
3.4
11.8
6.1
Note: BMI less than 15: severe malnourishment, 15-18.5 malnourished, 18.5 to 20:
normal but underweight, 20 to 25: normal, more than 25: overweight
For MP, height and weight were not calculated
Malnutrition is very high among the
younger population
Per cent of undernutrition by BMI
70
58.7
60
50
49.5
42.4
40
33.5
30.2
30
26.1
20
10
6.1
2.5
0
0-5 years
5-15 years
Severely malnourished
15-60 years
Malnourished
60+ years
Per cent of malnourished children under 5 years
90
82.6
79
80
72.5
70
60.9
60
47.4
50
40
30
46.4
31.6
26.1
21.7
20
10
0
Chattisgarh
Andhra Pradesh
Severely malnourished
Malnourished
Jharkhand
Total malnourished
Per cent of malnourished children 5-15 years
100
94.9
91.3
90
79.2
80
68.5
70
60
50
40
48.7
47.9
46.2
31.3
30
22.8
20
10
0
Chattisgarh
Andhra Pradesh
Severely malnourished
Malnourished
Jharkhand
Total malnourished
Per cent of households with ration cards
CHHATISGARH
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
BPL
35.6
61.7
86.3
38.9
50.6
APL
16.1
9.6
3.8
1.1
9.8
Antyodaya
14.6
10.4
6.3
18.9
13.1
Annapurna
0.5
No card
33.2
0.2
18.3
3.8
41.1
26.3
Per cent of households with ration cards,
by caste
ST
SC
OBC
General
BPL
50.4
58.0
57.1
32.3
APL
12.2
9.1
3.9
9.7
Antyodaya
14.4
4.5
15.6
6.5
23.0
28.4
23.4
51.6
Annapurna
no card
Levels of literacy are very low, but
improving for the young.
5 to 15
Male
15 to 60
60 and above
Female
total
Male
female
Total
Male
female
total
Chhattisgarh
Literate
89.6
88.4
89.0
61.3
33.0
47.1
25.0
5.9
15.2
Illiterate
10.4
11.6
11.0
38.7
67.0
52.9
75.0
94.1
84.8
Madhya Pradesh
Literate
42.6
33.3
37.9
15.6
5.7
10.7
5.6
5.6
5.6
Illiterate
57.4
66.7
62.1
84.4
94.3
89.3
94.4
94.4
94.4
Andhra Pradesh
Literate
87.0
85.5
86.2
45.0
19.3
31.7
11.1
Illiterate
13.0
14.5
13.8
55.0
80.7
68.3
88.9
Literate
78.4
68.1
73.4
42.6
13.7
28.5
10.0
Illiterate
21.6
31.9
26.6
57.4
86.3
71.5
90.0
100.0
93.8
Literate
73.0
67.6
70.2
45.9
21.7
33.8
13.2
3.8
8.5
Illiterate
26.8
32.4
29.6
54.1
78.3
66.2
86.8
96.2
91.5
0
4.8
100.0
95.2
Jharkhand
6.3
Total
School attendance is better in three states but
very poor in Madhya Pradesh. Gender gaps remain.
Chhattisgarh
Male
Female
Total
90.4
77.0
83.5
35.6
24.8
30.1
81.2
75.4
78.3
83.8
72.5
78.3
71.8
60.8
66.3
Madhya Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Jharkhand
Total
Agriculture is still the dominant employer
Chhattisgarh
Occupation
MP
AP
Jharkhand
Mal
e
fe
ma
le
tota
l
ma
le
fe
ma
le
tota
l
ma
le
Fe
ma
le
Tot
al
ma
le
2.5
1.1
1.8
1.0
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.8
2.1
Self-emp in agriculture
26.3
14.9
20.7
33.6
20.7
27.0
19.3
16.1
17.7
25.4
Agricultural labour
11.2
5.5
8.4
11.7
6.6
9.1
18.5
26.6
22.6
Casual labour in non-agri
10.9
3.0
7.0
12.4
12.5
12.4
12.0
5.2
2.5
0.9
1.7
2.7
0.3
1.5
3.1
Student
23.6
23.6
23.6
10.4
7.5
9.0
Old/infant
12.1
9.4
10.8
1.7
3.3
Disabled
0.2
0.2
0.2
Domestic worker
1.7
34.3
17.6
No work
8.0
6.9
Other (including can’t say)
1.0
0.2
Regular
Self-emp in non-agri
fe
ma
le
Total
tota
l
ma
le
fe
ma
le
tota
l
1.1
1.8
0.6
1.2
1.2
13.9
26.4
13.9
20.2
4.6
0.4
2.6
11.3
8.8
10.1
8.6
7.8
0.8
4.5
10.8
5.1
8.0
4.9
4.0
5.3
1.2
3.3
3.2
1.6
2.4
28.6
23.2
25.9
29.0
22.7
26.0
22.8
19.8
21.3
2.5
11.6
14.2
12.9
19.8
22.3
21.0
11.3
11.4
11.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.2
2.3
22.3
12.4
0.8
4.9
2.9
1.1
46.1
22.4
1.5
28.2
14.7
7.5
23.8
25.9
24.9
0.8
3.0
1.9
4.2
3.9
4.1
9.2
9.8
9.5
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
4.2
0.4
2.3
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.5
0.4
1.0
Features of employment
• High work participation rates reported in general.
• Women mainly reported to being “domestic workers” and selfemployed in agriculture, in traditional pattern of specialisation.
• Most workers were casual labour in agriculture or non-agriculture.
• There was high participation in public works, especially in MP
(except in AP because survey there was conducted in June when
rains had started).
• Open unemployment and “not working” (also probably
unemployment) was very high in Chhattisgarh (20%) and
moderately high (7%) in AP and Jharkhand, apparently low in MP.
• Wages received were typically very low, around half the minimum
wage of the states.
• Short-term migration for work was widely prevalent.
Migration Profile
• Mostly men migrate.
• Minimum distance 50 kms; Max. distance more than
1000 kms.
• Migrants generally find work as agricultural labour in
places where they migrate and construction workers.
• Duration of migration : Mostly between 2 weeks to 4
months.
• Very exploitative conditions of work for migrant workers.
Most respondents were aware of the NREGA
in some way
CHHATISGARH
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
Yes
69.3
45.0
97.5
28.9
60.6
No
30.7
55.0
2.5
71.1
39.4
Are you
aware of
NREGA?
But awareness was lowest among
Adivasis and Dalits
ST
SC
OBC
General
Yes
50.5
65.9
83.1
80.6
No
49.5
34.1
16.9
19.4
Are you
aware of
NREGA?
AP had the most job card applications,
while MP had the lowest
CHHATISGARH
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
Yes
52.7
35.0
76.3
72.2
55.8
No
47.3
65.0
23.8
27.8
44.2
Have you
applied
for Job
Card?
But once again, Adivasis and Dalits had the lowest rate of
application for Job cards
ST
SC
OBC
General
Yes
49.8
54.5
72.7
64.5
No
50.2
44.3
27.3
35.5
Have you
applied for
Job Card?
In MP job cards were distributed without applications;
AP had the highest rate of receiving cards among those who had
applied. In Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh the ratio was very low.
CHHATISGARH
MP
AP
JHARKHAND
Total
Yes
39.5
90.0
70.0
33.3
55.6
No
60.5
10.0
30.0
66.7
44.4
Have you
received
a job
card?
Dalits and general category had the lowest rate of
receiving cards after applying.
ST
SC
OBC
General
Yes
60.8
45.5
59.7
35.5
No
39.2
54.5
40.3
64.5
Have you
received a
job card?
Issues regarding NREGA Implementation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Micro profile of employment, wage and migration
Awareness about NREGA and Guidelines
Job card application and distribution
Application for work
List of works
Worksite facilities
Wages – determination and payment
Conditions at worksite
Muster rolls
Transparency, accountability and social audit
Unemployment allowance
Employment by type of Work
1400
1200
1000
No. of Workers
Pond
Road
800
CCT/CPT
Dam, Canal
Water Conservation/Earthen Building
600
Bridge
400
200
0
Type of1w ork
No. of days of employment generated under NREGA by Block
900
800
700
No. of labour-days
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Manatu
Manika
Dhar
Bageecha
No. of days of employment
Kulkacharla
Sadasivpet
Employment generated under NREGA by Block
1400
1200
No. of Workers
1000
800
Total no. of w orkers
600
400
200
0
Manatu
Manika
Barw ani
Dhar
Kushmi
Bageecha
Kulkacharla
Sadasivpet
Female to Male NREGA workforce participation ratio
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
FMR
0.4
0.2
0
Jharkhand
MP
Chattisgarh
AP
Problems about awareness
• In many areas, the Guidelines had not been received or were not
available in Hindi/local language.
• The idea that NREGA is demand-driven has still not permeated
among local officials in most areas.
• Workers were mostly unaware about their specific rights and the
processes that are required to avail of the rights.
• The transparency guidelines in particular were not known and not
seen to be compulsory.
• Panchayat sevaks who have to create awareness are overworked
and underpaid.
Recommendations about awareness
• There should be special training provided to local officials in charge
of the scheme, especially about the Guidelines. In addition to
circulars, special meetings should be held at district and state
government level.
• Much more dissemination about the Act and the scheme in required
among the people generally.
• More financial resources have to be set aside for creating
awareness.
• Local networks, radio advertisements, cultural troupes, should all be
used for official dissemination.
• Local organisations and students should also be used, focusing on
some areas intensively on a pilot basis.
Problems with job cards application and distribution -1
• Job cards were sometimes not available.
• Receipts were not provided when applications are submitted.
• Joint families were registered as one household, because of
problems with the definition of “household”.
• Money was being charged for forms in some cases (e.g. in
Jharkhand).
Problems with job cards application and distribution -2
• Lists used to define residence led to rejection of applications in
some cases, e.g. the BPL 2002 Census criterion in Palamau,
Jharkhand; 1997-98 Voters’ list in MP, etc.
• Female Headed Households were sometimes denied.
• Cards were distributed according to “quota” and by
caste/community/tribe. (Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh).
• Panchayat sevaks have to distribute cards to 2 or 3 panchayats,
which is difficult and time-consuming.
Recommendations for job cards application and distribution
• Application forms should be made easily available.
• Dated receipts should be provided with all applications.
• Clarity is required on the definition of residence as well as the
nuclear family as the household unit. Circulars should be issued
accordingly to all DCs/DMs.
• The eligibility of women to be heads of household should be
reiterated, not only in cases of widowhood etc., but all other
situations, including in cases of male temporary migration.
• Checks are required to ensure that no caste/community/tribal group
members are denied.
• District Administrations should ask for weekly progress reports, by
village or panchayat, on job card application and distribution.
Problems with application for work
• Many workers are not aware that work has to be applied
for after the job card is received.
• Dated receipts are not being given to workers.
• Often work is provided not on the basis of applications,
but simply when the local authority decides to set up a
work and therefore mobilises workers.
Recommendations on application for work
• The need to apply for work in addition to receiving a job
card must be made clear to all workers as part of the
dissemination.
• Periodic checks should be conducted to ensure that
dated receipts are provided.
Problems with list of works
• Local authorities and panchayats lack adequate
technical support to identify appropriate works and
estimate labour and other requirements.
• Works are being identified in centralised fashion without
participation by gram sabhas. Top-down approach of
earlier schemes is being repeated.
• In some cases, even when local people had made their
wishes clear, the preferred work was not chosen.
• Too much focus on roads and big ponds instead of
creating productive assets which meet local needs.
Recommendations on list of works
• More technical staff – engineers etc. – should be made
available at the local level. This can involve mobilising
retired people and others willing to work in particular
areas. More resources have to be set aside for this.
• Need to involve local groups (at the state/district level)
for wider consultations regarding type of works and
estimates.
Problems with worksite facilities
• In most worksites there was no crèche or provision for
first aid.
• Drinking water was also not being provided and there
was no effort to ensure shade in the vicinity for resting.
• Machines were being used on some sites.
• Local contractors were present at some sites, in MP in
the guise of “mates”.
Recommendations for worksite facilities
• Labour Enforcement Officer should ensure that all
facilities are provided and penalise non-provision.
• More clarity is required on who can be a mate – should
be chosen from among the workers.
• In areas where contractors have been traditionally
important and continue to dominate (e.g. MP), particular
effort should be made to ensure that they are not
involved at the work sites in any way.
Problems with wages - 1
• In many cases workers did not receive the minimum wage even for
a full day’s work. The major exception is Andhra Pradesh.
• Very significant underpayment was observed in some areas, e.g.
MP and Chattisgarh – as low as Rs. 6 -13 per day for a full day’s
digging work.
• The work norms (District Schedule of Rates) were unrealistic and
need to be revised downwards. Once again AP is the exception.
• Because of payment based on groups, there were some cases of
false muster rolls (MP) leading to more workers being listed and
therefore reduction of per worker wage.
Wages observed at worksites
during field survey
State
District
Jharkhand Palamau
Jharkhand Latehar
MP
Barwani
MP
Dhar
ChattisgarhSurguja
ChattisgarhJashpur
AP
Rangareddy
AP
Medak
Rupees per day
Daily rate Task rate
50
58.83/61.37
27
70
14
6 (female) or 13 (male)
58.83 42+2 kg rice
156
150-160
Problems with wages - 2
• Measurement of work is not made in front of the workers.
• Engineers do not visit the sites regularly and frequently
as they are currently too few in number.
• Payments are often not made on time. There were cases
of delay in payments even after money was received at
the panchayat level.
• Women often received lower wages for similar work.
Recommendations for wages
• The District Schedule of Rates needs to be revised in
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and MP (it has already been revised
in AP).
• Where workers are receiving very low wages, they should be
paid a daily rate for work instead of piece rate, until the rates
are revised.
• More engineers are required to visit the work site regularly
and calculate the basis of payment in front of the workers.
• Payments must be made regularly and periodic checks are
required to ensure this.
Problems with muster rolls
• Except in AP, muster rolls were not displayed and were
not available for public inspection even at the offices.
• In some areas (e.g. MP) muster rolls were treated as
secret and not be to divulged, with no local official
awareness of the NREGA guidelines.
Recommendations for muster rolls
• Muster rolls must be displayed prominently at all
worksites.
• Where workers are mostly illiterate, muster rolls must be
read out at the end of the day’s work.
• Failure to comply with these norms should be dealt with
strictly and made examples of.
Transparency, accountability and social audit
Problems
• In some areas, (observed in MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand) the local
administration or other authorities (mainly at the Block level)
obstruct people’s right to information and open expression.
• Officers are often not willing to be present at Jan Sunwais and
respond positively to feedback.
Recommendation
• Jan Sunwais should be given some priority by MoRD and statelevel administration, with clear guidelines to local officials regarding
presence and conduct during Jan Sunwais
HAR HAATH KO KAAM DO !
KAAM KA PURA DAAM DO !!

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