16:9 Template

Report
Using Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports
(PBIS/ PB4L) to Make Schools
more Effective and Equitable
Rob Horner
University of Oregon
www.pbis.org
Goals
• Define purpose of PBIS
• Define core features of PBIS
• Define how PBIS helps schools be more effective learning
environments
• Define how PBIS helps schools be more equitable learning
environments.
Why SWPBIS/ PB4L?
• The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is
to make schools more effective and
equitable learning environments.
Positive
Predictable
Consistent
Safe
Main Messages
• Supporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains.
• School-wide PB4L is an evidence-based practice for building a
positive social culture that will promote both social and academic
success.
• Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more
coordinated focus than typically expected.
• PBIS/PB4L will improve the equity within schools.
Main Messages
• PBIS makes schools more effective, equitable, efficient.
Effective (academic, behavior)
Equitable (all students succeed)
Efficient (time, cost)
Experimental Research on SWPBIS
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115
Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and
Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.
Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior
Interventions, 12, 133-148.
Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of
Children, 31, 1-26.
Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior
problems and adjustment. Pediatrics.
Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled
effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior
Interventions, 11, 133-145.
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on
Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.
Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support.
Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) 118-128.
Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and
Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of
Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156
Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012
Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach D.B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, ( submitted) Implementation Effects of School-wide
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports on Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools.
PBIS is Efficient
(Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher)
1000 Referrals/yr
2000 Referrals/yr
Administrator Time
500 Hours
1000 Hours
Teacher Time
250 Hours
500 Hours
Student Time
750 Hours
1500 Hours
Totals
1500 Hours
3000 Hours
T o ta l O ffi c e D i s c i p l i n e R e fe r r
Kennedy Middle School
1500
1200
900
600
300
0
Pre95-96
PBIS
96-97
97-98
Year 1
Year 2
School Years
98-99
Year 3
What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean?
Kennedy Middle School
 Savings in Administrative time
 ODR = 15 min
 Suspension = 45 min
 Savings in Student Instructional
time


ODR = 45 min
Suspension = 216 min
 13,875 minutes
 231 hours
 43,650 minutes
 728 hours
 29, 8-hour days
 121, 6-hour school
days
What is School-wide Positive Behavior
Intervention and Support (PBIS/PB4L)?
• School-wide PBIS/ PB4L is:
o A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and
behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and
academic outcomes for all students.
• Evidence-based features of SWPBIS/ PB4L
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Prevention
Define and teach positive social expectations
Acknowledge positive behavior
Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior
On-going collection and use of data for decision-making
Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.
Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
Establishing a
School-wide, Positive
Social Culture
Common
Experience
Common
Language
Common
Vision/Values
School-wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS/ PB4L)
•
The social culture of a school
matters.
•
A continuum of supports that begins
with the whole school and extends to
intensive, wraparound support for
individual students and their
families.
•
Effective practices with the systems
needed for high fidelity and
sustainability
•
Multiple tiers of intensity
SCHOOL-WIDE
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT/ PB4L
~5%
High-Risk Behavior
~15%
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students with
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students with AtRisk Behavior
Main Ideas:
1. Invest in prevention first
2. Multiple tiers of support
intensity
of Students
3. ~80%
Early/rapid
access to support
Math
Remember that the multiple
tiers of support refer to our
SUPPORT not Students.
Behavior
Avoid creating a new
disability labeling system.
Health
Reading
Schools using PBIS in the U.S.
August , 2014
21,611
New Zealand Data
• Implementing PB4L
Using PBIS to Achieve
Quality, Equity and Efficiency
•
QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports
o North Carolina (valued outcomes)
o Michigan (behavior and literacy supports)
o Commitment to Fidelity Measures
o Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford)
•
EQUITY: Making schools work for all
o Scott Ross
o Russ Skiba
o Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin
o Bully prevention
•
EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption.
o Using teacher and student time better.
o Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education
Define School-wide Expectations
for Social Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
Identify 3-5 Expectations
Short statements
Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing)
Memorable
Examples:
• Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend,
Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others,
property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults
Corrective
Consequences
Rewards
Decision
System
Team
Classroom
Systems
Expectations
Family
Bully
Prevention
Classroom Systems
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Routines
Effective Instruction
Opportunities to Respond
Constructive Feedback
Active Supervision
High rate of positives
Functional Consequences
Physical Space matches
Function
Designing Classroom
Routine
Entering Class
Obtaining class
attention
Routines
School-wide
Expectations
Walk in, sit down,
start work
Signal
Orient to teacher,
be quiet
?
Getting Help during ?
seat work
Instruction on
board
?
Family Engagement
Students
Families
School
Academic Engagement
Families
• Partnership with families
Families
• What three things could most families do that would make
the biggest positive impact on student educational
success?
• Options
• Show interest
• (ask how the day went)
• Help with homework
• (time, place, support, knowing)
• Communication with school
• (events, needs, what is working, and what is not working)
Team Activity:
How can your school engage
families:
Families
1) What are 1-3 reasonable things
families can do that would
make a difference?
2) What would be the best way to
share this information with
families? How would we
know if we had been
successful?
Academic Engagement
Bully Prevention
• Scott Ross
Available at
www.pbis.org
Ross, S. W., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive
behavior support. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), 747-759.
• Three Schools
• Six students identified for high rates of verbal and physical
aggression toward others.
• Whole school implementation of SWPBIS
• Whole school addition of Stop-Walk-Talk
• Direct observation of problem behavior on playground.
28
3.14
1.88
72%
.88
29
Baseline
BP-PBS
50%
40%
19% decrease
28% increase
30%
20%
BP-PBS, Scott Ross
No Response
Negative
Response
(crying/fighting
back)
"Walk"
0%
Positive Response
(laughing/cheering)
10%
"Stop"
Probability of Response
Conditional Probabilities of Victim Responses to Problem
Behavior
30
Conditional Probabilities of Bystander Responses to
Problem Behavior
50%
BP-PBS
22% decrease
40%
21% increase
30%
20%
BP-PBS, Scott Ross
No Response
Negative
Response
(crying/fighting
back)
"Walk"
0%
Positive Response
(laughing/cheering)
10%
"Stop"
Probability of Response
Baseline
31
Discipline Disproportionality
• A central element affecting the equity and effectiveness of
education
Elementary Schools:
Compare proportion of students enrolled to proportion of students
with an ODR
60
% Enrolled
50
Risk Ratio =
1.81
40
% with an ODR
30
% Enrol
% ODR
20
10
0
His/Latino
Af Am/ Blk
White
All Other
Preliminary Evidence:
When PBIS is linked to reduction in ODRs does reduction occur for
students from all ethnic groups?
Students with Major ODR/100 Students Enrolled
n = 69 schools
35
30
25
20
200506
200607
15
200708
10
5
0
All Students
Nat
Asian
Af Am
Latino
PacIs
White
From: Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin, 2009
Recommendations for Addressing Discipline Disproportionality in Education
Kent McIntosh, Erik J. Girvan, Robert H. Horner, & Keith Smolkowski
•
1. Effective Instruction
•
Curriculum, Explicit presentation, Opportunity to respond, Timely and contingent feedback
•
2. Implement PBIS
•
3. Collect and use disaggregated discipline data
•
4. Address “explicit bias” with clear policies, regulations and
accountability.
•
5. Address “implicit bias” with neutralizing routines.
•
•
Identify times / situations when untended bias may occur
Teach self-direction routines when these times/situations occur
Measuring Fidelity of PBIS
• Very important for initial and sustained implementation
• To date… too many tools
• New Fidelity Tool …. Combination of Best Features
o
o
o
o
o
Strong technical validity
Done with Coach and Team
Can be done in 15 min per Tier
Can be used for initial assessment, progress monitoring and identification of exemplars
Results in action plan
PBIS Implementation Inventory
TFI Item report
Emphasis
on
Prevention
Team
Increased
structure
Assessment
used to tailor /
individualize
support
Elevated
Rewards
Prevent
rewards for
problem
behavior
safety
Decision
System
Teaching
Family/
Wrap
around
Fidelity Measures at Tier III
• Sarah Pinkelman
Summary
• PBIS is a framework for improving the effectiveness and equity of schools
• PBIS is evidence-based
• Building a cohesive and clear social culture matters
• Invest in prevention
• Use data to BOTH guide implementation and improve student outcomes.
Effective
Efficient
Practices that
work
PBIS
PB4L
Equitable
Practices
that
benefit all
Practices that
are practical,
durable and
available

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