An Introduction to

An Introduction to
APA Style
Why do we need to know APA?
 To avoid plagiarism
 To provide a clear, uniform style for
 To organize your paper so it is less
confusing for the reader
When do we cite?
 When we borrow the words or
thoughts of another person by
Before you Begin
 Make sure your margins are set at 1 inch
 Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font
 Everything in your paper should be double
spaced and
 Nothing is underlined
Title Page
 Information Needed:
Running Head
Institutional Affiliation
Sample Title Page:
Anorexia and Bulimia:
Causes, Symptoms, Effects, and Treatment
Emily M. Jacobs
Gwynedd-Mercy College
Sample Abstract
This paper discusses Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences. He believes that there
are seven different intelligences, and each person is skilled in a certain one. The seven
intelligences are linguistic, musical, logical or mathematical, spatial, physical or kinesthetic,
interpersonal and intrapersonal. Within each intelligence are certain areas or skills in which a
person with that intelligence excels. Finally, this paper addresses Gardner’s theory of how to
assess children in these areas. He has proposed a Project Spectrum Approach, in which children
are observed in a comfortable and natural setting over a long period of time.
 APA Style uses a unique heading system to
separate and classify paper sections.
 There are 5 heading levels in APA.
 Regardless of the number of levels, always
use the headings in order, beginning with
level 1.
 Level 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and
Level 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and
Level 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading
with period.
Level 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase
with period.
Level 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase with period.
Level 1
Anorexia and Bulimia
parents often struggle with marital problems. Jablow (1992) explains that “mothers of bulimics tend to be
more hostile and depressed than other mothers, and…fathers tend to be more irritable, impulsive, and
more alienated from the bulimic daughter” (p. 81).
Level 2
Families of bulimics often have difficulty dealing with problems and communicating effectively.
It is difficult for a young girl to live under such circumstances, so she tends to use her binge-purge cycle
as an escape and an area of her life that she can control.
Psychological indicators.
Level 3
In Text/Parenthetical
 Information Required:
- Author(s) name
- Date of Publication
- Page number (for direct quotations)
Sample in-text citations
 According to Arthur (2001), the evidence was
 According to Hastings (2004), “The sources
presented provided modified results” (p. 421).
 The information compiled is irrelevant to the
successful completion of the experiment
(Wyndmore, 1989).
Things to remember…
 Quotes of 40 or more words appear in a block
quotation format, indented with no quotation
 In a block quotation the period goes before the
parentheses to show that the citation is not part of
the quote
 Block quotations are double spaced
Sample Block Quotation
done on the wrists, arms, legs, or stomach, are hard
enough to break the skin and possibly deep enough
to cause bleeding and scarring; however, they are
not intended to cause permanent pain or suicide
(Cool Nurse). According to Hayes (2005),
Self-inflicted injury is a coping mechanism,
albeit not a particularly healthy one, used
by those who want to live and are
struggling to control their emotions. This
self-injurious act is indicative of a failure
by an individual to develop positive
coping skills in the face of
overwhelming stress. (p.1172)
Multiple Authors
 For 1-2 authors, cite both names every time.
 For 3-5 authors, cite all authors the first time; use
just the first name with “et al.” in subsequent
 More than 5: cite only the first author with “et al.”
every time.
Citing a Book…
Elements of a reference to an entire book
Cone, J. D., & Foster, S. L. (1993). Dissertations and theses from start to finish:
Psychology and related fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological
Print Journals
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Article title.
Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page
Berkerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness.
American Psychologist, 48(3), 574-576.
Citing a Database Article
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Article title. Journal
Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. doi or Retrieved from URL
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993).
Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 78(8), 443-449. Retrieved from
A Database article with DOI
 Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations:
An annotated bibliography. European Journal of
Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-1283.
Citing a Website
Because websites frequently don’t provide all the information necessary for a
complete citation, list the information you have in this order and omit items that
may be unavailable or redundant.
First :Author, sponsoring organization or article title
Complete date
Title of article
Name and issue of periodical OR Website name/Sponsoring organization
Retrieval date if the website is likely to change the content
URL address
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize
health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, Article 001a. Retrieved
Basic Internet Citation
 Exploring linguistics. (1999, August 9).
Retrieved from
References for Multiple Authors
 Up to seven authors, list every author
 For sources with eight or more authors, use
the first six names followed by an ellipsis (…)
and the last author’s name.
Ex. Dolan, R., Smith, R. C., Fox, N. K., Purcell, L.,
Fleming, J., Alderfer, B., …Roman, D. E.
(2008). Management of diabetes: The
adolescent challenge. The Diabetes Educator,
34, 118-135.
The Reference Page
 List your sources alphabetically
 Use a hanging indent if your reference is
more than one line of text
 The word “References” should be centered at
the top of the page
 Within a reference, list the authors in the
same order they are listed in the article
 Take notice of special rules for capitalization
and italics that are unique to APA
Sample Reference Page
Exploring Linguistics. (1999, August 9). Retrieved February 10, 2005, from
Guo, B. (1995). Gate to Chinese calligraphy. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
Hearn, M., & Smith, J. (Eds.). (2001). Chinese art: Modern expressions. New York: The
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
McCaffrey, John. (2007, December 11). The changes in modern language. The New York Times.
Retrieved from
Paul, Melissa. (2006). The benefits of art instruction in middle school. Education Digest,12(4), 3846. Retrieved from http://academicsearchelite.middl/aieo97cka;kps
More Information…
 The ARC is available for further assistance in
APA format.
 Writing Tutors can help with more specific
citation or style questions.
 Call or email anytime, 267-448-1370 or
[email protected]

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