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Protists > Groups of Protists
Groups of Protists
• Excavata
• Chromalveolata: Alveolates
• Chromalveolata: Stramenopiles
• Rhizaria
• Archaeplastida
• Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta
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Protists > Groups of Protists
Excavata
• Excavata are a supergroup of protists that are defined by an asymmetrical
appearance with a feeding groove that is "excavated" from one side; it includes
various types of organisms which are parasitic, photosynthetic and heterotrophic
predators.
• Excavata includes the protists: Diplomonads, Parabasalids and Euglenozoans.
• Diplomonads are defined by the presence of a nonfunctional, mitochrondrialremnant organelle called a mitosome.
• Parabasalids are characterized by a semi-functional mitochondria referred to as a
hydrogenosome; they are comprised of parasitic protists, such as
<em>Giardia lamblia </em>
<em>Trichomonas vaginalis</em>.
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• Euglenozoans can be classified as mixotrophs, heterotrophs, autotrophs, and
parasites; they are defined by their use of flagella for movement.
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Protists > Groups of Protists
Chromalveolata: Alveolates
• Alveolates are classified under the group Chromalveolata which developed as a
result of a secondary endosymbiotic event.
• Dinoflagellates are defined by their flagella structure which lays perpendicular and
fits into the cellulose plates of the dinoflagellate, promoting a spinning motion.
• Apicomplexans are defined by the asymmetrical distribution of their microtubules,
fibrin, and vacuoles; they include the parasitic protist <em>Plasmodium</em>
which causes malaria.
• Ciliates are defined by the presence of cilia (such as the oral groove in the
<em>Paramecium)</em>, which beat synchronously to aid the organism in
Dinoflagellates
locomotion and obtaining nutrients.
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• Ciliates are defined by the presence of cilia, which beat synchronously, to aid the
organism in locomotion and obtaining nutrients, such as the oral groove in the
<em>Paramecium</em>.
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Protists > Groups of Protists
Chromalveolata: Stramenopiles
• Stramenophiles, also referred to as heterokonts, are a subclass of
chromalveolata, and are identified by the presence of a "hairy" flagellum.
• Diatoms, present in both freshwater and marine plankton, are unicellular
photosynthetic protists that are characterized by the presence of a cell wall
composed of silicon dioxide that displays intricate patterns.
• Golden algae, present in both freshwater and marine plankton communities, are
unicellular photosynthetic protists characterized by the presence of carotenoids
(yellow-orange photosynthetic pigments).
• Oomycetes, commonly referred to as water molds, are characterized by their
fungus-like morphology, a cellulose-based cell wall, and a filamentous network
Stramenophile structure
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used for nutrient uptake.
• Oomycetes, commonly referred to as water molds, are characterized by their
fungus-like morphology, a cellulose-based cell wall and a filamentous network
used for nutrient uptake.
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Protists > Groups of Protists
Rhizaria
• The needle-like pseudopodia are used to carry out a process called cytoplasmic
streaming which is a means of locomotion or distributing nutrients and oxygen.
• Two major subclassifications of Rhizaria include Forams and Radiolarians.
• Forams are characterized as unicellular heterotrophic protists that have porous
shells, referred to as tests, which can contain photosynthetic algae that the foram
can use as a nutrient source.
• Radiolarians are characterized by a glassy silica exterior that displays either
bilateral or radial symmetry.
Ammonia tepida
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Protists > Groups of Protists
Archaeplastida
• Archaeplastida are typically associated with their relationship to land plants; in
addition, molecular evidence shows that Archaeplastida evolved from an
endosymbiotic relationship between a heterotrophic protist and a cyanobacterium.
• Red algae (rhodophytes), are classified as Archaeplastida and are most often
characterized by the presence of the red pigment phycoerythrin; however, there
are red algae that lack phycoerythrins and can be classified as parasites.
• Red algae typically exist as multicellular protists that lack flagella; however, they
can also exist as unicellular organisms.
• Green algae are the most abundant group of algae and can be further classified
as chlorophytes and charophytes.
<em>Volvox aureus </em>
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• Charophytes are the green algae which resemble land plants and are their closest
living relative.
• Chlorophytes are the green algae which exhibit a wide range of forms; they can
be unicellular, multicellular, or colonial.
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Protists > Groups of Protists
Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta
• Amoebozoa (amoebas) can live in either marine and fresh water or in soil.
• Amoebozoa are characterized by the presence of pseudopodia, which are
extensions that can be either tube-like or flat lobes and are used for locomotion
and feeding.
• Amooebozoa can be further divided into subclassifications that include slime
molds; these can be found as both plasmodial and cellular types.
• Plasmodial slime molds are characterized by the presence of large, multinucleate
cells that have the ability to glide along the surface and engulf food particles as
they move.
Pseudopodia structures
• Cellular molds are characterized by the presence of independent amoeboid cells
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during times of nutrient abundancy and the development of a cellular mass, called
a slug, during times of nutrient depletion.
• Archamoebae, Flabellinea, and Tubulinea are also groups of Amoebozoa; their
defining characteristics include: Archamoebae lack mitochondria; Flabellinea
flatten during locomotion and lack a shell and flagella; Tubulinea have a rough
cylindrical form during locomotion with cylindrical pseudopodia.
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Appendix
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Protists
Key terms
• conjugation the temporary fusion of organisms, especially as part of sexual reproduction
• endosymbiotic that lives within a body or cells of another organism
• hydrogenosome a membrane-bound organelle found in ciliates, trichomonads, and fungi which produces molecular hydrogen
and ATP
• kinetoplast a disk-shaped mass of circular DNA inside a large mitochondrion, found specifically in protozoa of the class
Kinetoplastea
• mitosome an organelle found within certain unicellular eukaryotes which lack mitochondria
• osmoregulation the homeostatic regulation of osmotic pressure in the body in order to maintain a constant water content
• plankton a generic term for all the organisms that float in the sea
• plasmodium a mass of cytoplasm, containing many nuclei, created by the aggregation of amoeboid cells of slime molds during
their vegetative phase
• plastid any of various organelles found in the cells of plants and algae, often concerned with photosynthesis
• pseudopodia temporary projections of eukaryotic cells
• raphe a ridge or seam on an organ, bodily tissue, or other structure, especially at the join between two halves or sections
• rhizaria a species-rich supergroup of mostly unicellular eukaryotes that for the most part are amoeboids with filose, reticulose,
or microtubule-supported pseudopods
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Protists
• saprobe an organism that lives off of dead or decaying organic material
• sporangia an enclosure in which spores are formed (also called a fruiting body)
• stipe the stem of a kelp
• test the external calciferous shell of a foram
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Protists
<em>Giardia lamblia </em>
The mammalian intestinal parasite <em>Giardia lamblia,</em> visualized here using scanning electron microscopy, is a waterborne protist that causes
severe diarrhea when ingested.
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Protists
Life cycle of <em>Trypanosoma brucei </em>
<em>Trypanosoma brucei,</em> the causative agent of sleeping sickness, spends part of its life cycle in the tsetse fly and part in humans.
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Protists
Dinoflagellates
The dinoflagellates exhibit great diversity in shape.Many are encased in cellulose armor and have two flagella that fit in grooves between the
plates.Movement of these two perpendicular flagella causes a spinning motion.
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Protists
<em>Paramecium</em>: sexual reproduction
The complex process of sexual reproduction in <em>Paramecium</em> creates eight daughter cells from two original cells.Each cell has a
macronucleus and a micronucleus.During sexual reproduction, the macronucleus dissolves and is replaced by a micronucleus.
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Protists
Parasitic apicomplexans
(a) Apicomplexans are parasitic protists.They have a characteristic apical complex that enables them to infect host cells.(b) Plasmodium, the causative
agent of malaria, has a complex life cycle typical of apicomplexans.
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Protists
Bioluminescence
Bioluminescence is emitted from dinoflagellates in a breaking wave, as seen from the New Jersey coast.
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Protists
Paramecium
Paramecium has a primitive mouth (called an oral groove) to ingest food and an anal pore to excrete it. Contractile vacuoles allow the organism to
excrete excess water.Cilia enable the organism to move.
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Protists
Diatoms
Assorted diatoms, visualized here using light microscopy, live among annual sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.Diatoms range in size from 2 to 200
µm.
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Protists
Brown algae life cycle
Several species of brown algae, such as the <em>Laminaria</em> shown here, have evolved life cycles in which both the haploid (gametophyte) and
diploid (sporophyte) forms are multicellular.The gametophyte is different in structure from the sporophyte.
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Protists
Oomycete
A saprobic oomycete engulfs a dead insect.
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Protists
Stramenophile structure
This stramenopile cell has a single hairy flagellum and a secondary smooth flagellum.
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Protists
Ammonia tepida
Ammonia tepida, a Rhizaria species viewed here using phase contrast light microscopy, exhibits many threadlike pseudopodia.
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Protists
Forams
These shells from foraminifera sank to the sea floor.
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Protists
Radiolarian shell
This fossilized radiolarian shell was imaged using a scanning electron microscope.
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Protists
<em>Caulerpa taxifolia </em>
<em>Caulerpa taxifolia</em> is a chlorophyte consisting of a single cell containing potentially thousands of nuclei.
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Protists
<em>Volvox aureus </em>
<em>Volvox aureus</em> is a green alga in the supergroup Archaeplastida.This species exists as a colony, consisting of cells immersed in a gel-like
matrix and intertwined with each other via hair-like cytoplasmic extensions.
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Protists
Plasmodial slime mold: Physarum polycephalum
Physarum polycephalum is an example of a cellular slime mold.
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Protists
Badhamia utricularis
Badhamia utricularis: an example of a plasmodial slime mold with the ability to form a fruiting body.
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Protists
Pseudopodia structures
Amoebae with tubular and lobe-shaped pseudopodia, such as the ones seen under this microscope, would be morphologically classified as
amoebozoans.
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Protists
A new protist is discovered that: has two long flagella which
provide a means of locomotion; has a distinct groove to one side;
and can obtain nutrients by either a heterotrophic or autotrophic
method. This protist can be classified as:
A) an euglenozoan
B) a parabasalid
C) a diplomonad
D) a mitosome
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Protists
A new protist is discovered that: has two long flagella which
provide a means of locomotion; has a distinct groove to one side;
and can obtain nutrients by either a heterotrophic or autotrophic
method. This protist can be classified as:
A) an euglenozoan
B) a parabasalid
C) a diplomonad
D) a mitosome
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Protists
Which of the following is a characteristic of Dinoflagellates?
A) encased by interlocking plates made of cellulose
B) asymmetrically distributed vacuoles
C) covered in rows of tiny cilia
D) surrounded by a pellicle for protection
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Protists
Which of the following is a characteristic of Dinoflagellates?
A) encased by interlocking plates made of cellulose
B) asymmetrically distributed vacuoles
C) covered in rows of tiny cilia
D) surrounded by a pellicle for protection
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Protists
All of the following are Stramenopiles EXCEPT:
A) heterokonts.
B) unikonts.
C) diatoms.
D) oomycetes.
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Protists
All of the following are Stramenopiles EXCEPT:
A) heterokonts.
B) unikonts.
C) diatoms.
D) oomycetes.
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Protists
Which of the following characteristics is unique to Diatoms?
A) silicon dioxide shells
B) unicellular organisms
C) photosynthetic activities
D) live in colonies
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Protists
Which of the following characteristics is unique to Diatoms?
A) silicon dioxide shells
B) unicellular organisms
C) photosynthetic activities
D) live in colonies
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Protists
Which of these describes the largest difference between the
shells of Foraminiferans and Radiolarians?
A) Foram shells dissolve when the organism dies, while Radiolarian
shells sink to the bottom.
B) Foram shells have pointy spines,while Radiolarian shells are
completely smooth.
C) Foram shells exhibit radial symmetry, while Radiolarian shells exhibit
bilateral symmetry.
D) Foram shells are made of calcium carbonate, while Radilarians have
shells made of silica.
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Protists
Which of these describes the largest difference between the
shells of Foraminiferans and Radiolarians?
A) Foram shells dissolve when the organism dies, while Radiolarian
shells sink to the bottom.
B) Foram shells have pointy spines,while Radiolarian shells are
completely smooth.
C) Foram shells exhibit radial symmetry, while Radiolarian shells exhibit
bilateral symmetry.
D) Foram shells are made of calcium carbonate, while Radilarians have
shells made of silica.
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Protists
Red algae differ from green algae in that the red algae:
A) can be subdivided into chlorophytes and charophytes
B) must contain phycoerythrins to be classifed as a red algae
C) are primarily multicellular
D) contain flagella which are used a sensor
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Protists
Red algae differ from green algae in that the red algae:
A) can be subdivided into chlorophytes and charophytes
B) must contain phycoerythrins to be classifed as a red algae
C) are primarily multicellular
D) contain flagella which are used a sensor
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Protists
Which of the following traits are associated with the protists
classified as slime molds?
A) the pseudopodia associated with amoebozoa are hair-like
B) the ability to produce spores that develop into a haploid zygote
C) all these choices
D) the ability to exist singly or as an aggregate of cells known as a slug
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Protists
Which of the following traits are associated with the protists
classified as slime molds?
A) the pseudopodia associated with amoebozoa are hair-like
B) the ability to produce spores that develop into a haploid zygote
C) all these choices
D) the ability to exist singly or as an aggregate of cells known as a slug
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Protists
Attribution
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "kinetoplast." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kinetoplast
• Wiktionary. "hydrogenosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydrogenosome
• Wiktionary. "mitosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mitosome
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "conjugation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/conjugation
• Wiktionary. "osmoregulation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmoregulation
• Wiktionary. "plastid." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plastid
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "stipe." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stipe
• Wiktionary. "saprobe." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/saprobe
• Wiktionary. "raphe." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/raphe
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "test." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/test
• Wikipedia. "pseudopodia." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pseudopodia
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "plankton." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plankton
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Protists
• Wiktionary. "endosymbiotic." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endosymbiotic
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Tubulinea." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubulinea
• Wikipedia. "Flabellinea." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flabellinea
• Wikipedia. "Archamoebae." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archamoebae
• Wikipedia. "Rhizaria." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhizaria
• Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Genome Analysis/Sequenced Genomes." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Genome_Analysis/Sequenced_Genomes#Amoebozoa
• Wikipedia. "sporangia." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sporangia
• Wiktionary. "plasmodium." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plasmodium
• Wikipedia. "rhizaria." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/rhizaria
• Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Three Domains of Life/Eukarya." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Three_Domains_of_Life/Eukarya
• Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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