Napoleon Bonaparte

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Define the terms “Hero” and “Tyrant”
 What are some examples in history of Heroes
and Tyrants?
 Can someone be both a hero and tyrant?
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Constitution Year III of the Republic
With the foreign invaders vanquished and the
Reign of Terror at an end, the Convention was
finally able to inaugurate its new constitution.
 It created the Directory….
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Continued Military Success
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Napoleon won battles
against the Italians and
Austrians in 1796.
Won most of Egypt in
1798, but suffered heavy
losses in the Navy to
achieve victory.
Kept his losses secret
from the government and
became a national hero,
being promoted to
General.
The Consulate
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The popular and wellsupported Napoleon
led a coup d'état in
November 1799 against
the Directory.
The resulting
government, called the
Consulate, enabled
Napoleon to be
dictator of France.
After Napoleon’s Takeover…Answer
the following

Did Napoleon do more to preserve the legacy of the
French Revolution or to destroy it?

Although Napoleon assumed dictatorial powers, he became
First Consul as well as Emperor with the enthusiasm and
approval of the French people. Should this affect how we
judge him in the role of "tyrant"?

Must we assume that all conquerors throughout history are
villains? When, if ever, can a conqueror be hero?

Did Napoleon conquer others for a higher purpose, or only
for his own glory?
Napoleonic Wars
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Napoleon desired to
rule all of Europe.
Many wars were fought
from 1805-1815
throughout Europe.
Gained control of Spain,
Holland, Italy, the
Rhineland, and Poland
Map of Napoleonic Wars
Continental System
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Britain remained
France’s primary enemy.
Napoleon implemented
the Continental System
or blockade of British
trade.
Napoleon’s Policies
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Established the Concordat;
recognition of the Catholic
Church’s influence in
France.
Established the Bank of
France to regulate the
economy and collect taxes.
Created the Napoleonic
Code of Laws.
Established a public school
system.
Developed a strong sense of
French nationalism.
How would the following people see
Napoleon?

An aristocratic lady who fled France during
the Revolution after several relatives were
guillotined.
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A worker in Paris who was among those who
stormed the Bastille in 1789.
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A soldier who fought with Napoleon at the
Battle of Austerlitz in 1805.
Russian Campaign - 1812
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In June 1812, Napoleon led
an army of 600,000 men to
invade Russia.
The Russian troops
withdrew as the French
advanced, burning food
supplies and fields so that
the French had nothing.
250,000 French soldiers
died
94,000 were taken prisoner
150,000 were wounded
Exile to Elba - 1814
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After the Russian
Campaign disaster,
Napoleon was defeated
at the Battle of Leipzig.
Napoleon was allowed
to keep his title of
Emperor, but was exiled
to the island of Elba.
Hundred Days - 1815
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France’s enemies restored
the monarchy and the
borders of France to what
they had been in 1792.
Napoleon escaped from
Elba and returned to
France.
Troops sent to arrest him,
pledged their loyalty to him
instead.
On March 20, Napoleon
returned to Paris to
cheering crowds.
Waterloo
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On June 18, 1815, French
troops met a coalition of
Belgian, Dutch, Prussian,
and British troops.
Both sides suffered heavy
losses, but in the end the
French lost.
Napoleon was captured
and exiled to Saint
Helena, an island in the
South Atlantic.
Did Napoleon betray the Revolution or fulfill it?
Economy
Goals of the *Equal taxation
*Lower Inflation
French
Revolution
Government
and Society
Religion
Reduce government
corruption.
Equal access to
power.
Reduce the power
of the Church.
Religious
Tolerance.
Napoleon’s
Actions
*Fair tax system
*National Bank
*Stabilized
Currency
Merit based civil
service.
lycees to train
bureaucrats.
Unified Legal Code.
Catholicism set
up as cultural
religion.
Separation of
Church and State
maintained.
Results
*Equal Taxation
*Stable Economy
Efficient government.
Equal opportunity.
Public education.
Religious
tolerance.
Secular State.
Napoleon’s Tomb
Hitler Visits Napoleon’s Tomb
June 28, 1940
Congress of Vienna
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Meeting of European
diplomats.
Restored preFrench Revolution
monarchies.
Restored France’s
borders to the
borders in 1792.
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
By Jacques-Louis David
Painted1801-1805
Oil on canvas

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