Latin American Revolutions

Report
– In the late 1700’s, enlightenment and
revolutionary ideas spread from Europe
and the United States to Latin America.
– Nationalism, Creoles
:
– Identify two effects of the French
Revolution and Napoleon on Europe?
• European
nations had
established
colonies in Latin
America
• Colonies began
to rebel in the
early 1800’s
Toussaint L’Ouverture
Enlightenment
Ideas
Haiti
Success of American
and French
Revolutions
Independence
movements
In
Latin America
Mexico
Miguel
Hidalgo
South
America
Nationalism
Simon Bolivar
Jose de San
Martin
• Educated Creoles read
works of Enlightenment
writers
– Locke, Voltaire,
Montesquieu, Rousseau
• Success of American
Revolution showed
foreign rule could be
overthrown
• Inspired by ideas of the
French Revolution
• Nationalism?
– Feeling of pride or
devotion to one's
nation
• Nationalism often
develops when a
group is under
control of foreign
nation
• French colony
became the first
Latin American
colony to rebel
• Had large sugar
plantations worked
by African slaves
• Mulattoes had few
rights
• lead a successful revolt
against French control of
Haiti
– Self educated, former
slave
– familiar with
enlightenment ideas
– Capable military leader
• Haitian slaves won their
freedom in 1798
• Napoleon had sent French
troops to retake Haiti
– French attempts to retake
Haiti failed
– Toussaint was captured and
sent back to France
– Died in a prison in the Alps
• Haiti becomes first
independent Latin American
nation
– Jan 1804
– Became a republic in 1820
• Inspired other Latin
American colonies to rebel
• What role did Toussaint L’ Overture in
encouraging revolutions in Latin
America?
– Latin Leaders such as Toussaint L’
Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Jose de
San Martin led popular movements to
overthrow European rule.
– Liberation
:
– Which social class in the Spanish class
system was most familiar with
enlightenment ideas?
“My friends and countrymen neither the
king nor tributes exist for us any longer.
We have borne this shameful tax, which
only suits slaves, for three centuries as a
sign of tyranny and servitude: [a] terrible
stain which we shall know how to wash
away with our efforts. The moment of
our freedom has arrived, the hour of our
liberty has struck; and if you recognized
its great value, you will help me defend
it from the ambitious grasp of the
tyrants.
• Mexican priest
• Began a 11 year
revolution against
Spanish rule in Mexico
in 1810
– Hidalgo defeated in
1811
– Jose Morelos and
others continue the
fight
– Mexico gains
independence in 1821
• Napoleon conquered
Spain and made his
brother King (1808)
• Creoles in Latin
American colonies
refused to support
non-Spanish ruler
– Enlightenment idea?
• Consent of the GovernedJohn Locke
– Revolutions broke out in
several Spanish colonies
in Latin America (1810)
• Educated creole
• Inspired by
enlightenment and
American and French
Revolutions
• Led independence
movements against
Spanish rule in South
America
– Nicknamed the
“liberator”
• Led military
campaign that
won independence
for:
– Venezuela
– Columbia
– Ecuador
– Peru
– Bolivia
• Joined forces
with Bolivar
• Defeated
Spanish in
Argentina and
Chile
• Bolivar was
unsuccessful in
creating a united
Latin American state
– Gran Columbia
• Former Spanish
colonies divided into
separate independent
states
• Why did revolutionary leaders in Latin
America feel that they were justified in
rebelling against foreign rule?

similar documents