SECTION 3

Report
SECTION 3,4,& 5
GOVERNANCE & POLICY-MAKING
REPRESENTATION & PARTICIPATION
IRANIAN POLITICS IN TRANSITION
Islamic Revolution of 1979
• Overthrew the Shah
• Declared Shi’a Islam as Iran’s
official religion
• Set up a hybrid governmentIslamic theocracy and
democracy
• Ayatollah Khomeini named
Supreme Leader
• Constitution affirms faith in
God, Divine Justice, the
Qur’an, the Resurrection, the
Prophet Muhammad, the 12
imams, the eventual return of
the Hidden Imam (the Mahdi),
and Khomeini’s doctrine of
jurist’s guardianship.
Ayatollah Khomeini
Organization of the State
The Supreme Leader
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Constitution grants broad power
Mediator between legislative,
executive, and judicial branches
Determines the interests of Islam
Supervises implementation of
general policy
Sets political guidelines for the
Islamic Republic
Can eliminate any political
candidate and dismiss any
government official
Commander in Chief of military
with power to declare war and
peace
Can nominate and remove judges
Authorized to fill bureaucratic
posts
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
The President
Just Kidding!!
The President
• Highest official after the
Supreme Leader
• Chosen every 4 years through
national election
• Must be a pious Shi’a faithful
to the principles of the Islamic
Republic
• May propose legislation
• Directs economic and
diplomatic matters
• Appoints all vice-presidents,
cabinet members, bureaucratic
heads, ambassadors, and
other senior officials
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
The Armed Forces of the
Islamic Republic of Iran
• Controlled by the clergy
• 545,000 total forces
• Army- 350,000
• Navy- 18,000
• Air Force- 52,000
• Guardians of the Islamic Revolution
(Revolutionary Guard)- 125,000
• Basij (volunteer militia)90,000 full-time
300,000 reserves
11,000,000- can be mobilized
Revolutionary Guard
The Judiciary
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Guardian Council comprised of 6 Judges and 6
Lawyers
Acts as a constitutional court
Head of Judiciary appointed by the Supreme Leader
Judge acts as prosecutor, jury, and arbitrator
Retribution Law- strict form of Shari’a
Vast inequality- male v. female, Muslim v. non-Muslim
Death penalty is applied in cases of homosexuality,
adultery, treason, apostasy, murder, rape, and child
molestation.
Mahmoud Shahroudi
Assembly of Experts
• 86 Mullahs elected to 8-year
terms
• All members belong to the
Shi’a clergy
• Responsible for selecting the
Supreme Leader and
reviewing the actions of the
Supreme Leader
• To date, has never challenged
a Supreme Leader
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Expediency Council
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
• Serves to resolve conflict
which arise between the
Majlis and Council of
Guardians
• Consultative council to
the Supreme Leader
• Consists of 13 Clerics
and the President,
Speaker of the Majiles,
and 6 jurists of the
Council of Guardians
The Majlis
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Parliament of Iran
Unicameral legislature
290 Seats
4 Year Terms
Cannot overturn vetoes
Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel
Political Culture, Citizenship, and Identity
• Shi’a Islam is religion of both the state and the
majority of the population
• All citizens, regardless of race, color, language,
or religion are promised the rights of free
expression, worship and organization
• Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians form 1 percent of
population
• Sunni and Baha’i Muslims are seemed defectors
from Islam
• Persian is spoken by 83% of the population
Internal Problems since the Revolution
• Over half the population of Iran born after the Revolution
• Islamic Republic closed down newspapers, professional
associations, labor unions, and political parties
• Tortured and executed over 25,000 political prisoners
with no due process of law
• Modern middle class, educated women, and organized
labor were exceptionally resented
• Women forced by shari’a to wear a veil
Political Challenges and Changing Agendas
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Reversed some reforms of his predecessor President Khatami
President Ahmadinejad’s repeated call for “wiping Israel off the map”
Iran labelled as part of the “Axis of Evil”
Iran accused of aiding terrorists in Iraq and Syria
Iran allying itself with America’s enemies such as Venezuela
Iran’s Main Worldwide Issue

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