Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Report
Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA)
SAFE 210
Goals
 Protect human health and environment from the
potential hazards of waste disposal
 Conserve energy and natural resources
 Reduce the amount of waste generated
 Ensure that wastes are managed in an
environmentally sound manner
Major Amendments
 Enacted in 1976 (as an amendment to the Solid
Waste Disposal Act of 1965)
 1984 – Hazardous and Solid Waste
Amendments (HSWA)
Major Programs/Subtitles
 Subtitle C:
Hazardous Waste
 Subtitle D: Solid Waste
 Subtitle I: Underground storage tanks
Subtitle C: Hazardous Waste
Management Program
What is Hazardous Waste?
 Solid waste – Any garbage, refuse, sludge from
a waste treatment plant, water supply treat
 Hazardous waste – A solid waste or combination
of solid wastes that lead to an increase in illness
or mortality or poses a hazard (or potential
hazard) to human health or environment when
improperly stored, treated, transported or
disposed.
Some Excluded Hazardous Waste
 Domestic sewage
 Irrigation waters or industrial discharges allowed
under the CWA
 Nuclear material regulated by the Atomic Energy
Act
 Household wastes
 Certain mining and mineral processing wastes
What is Hazardous Waste?
 Listed wastes
F, K, P, and U lists
 Characteristic wastes
Ignitability
Corrosivity
Reactivity
Toxicity
Typical Wastes Generated by
Industries
Chemical
manufacturers
 Vehicle maintenance
shops
 Printing industry
 Paper industry
 Metal manufacturing
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Acids, bases, reactive & ignitable
wastes
Paint wastes, ignitable wastes,
spent solvents
Heavy metals, inks
Ignitable & corrosive wastes, inks
Acids/bases,, cyanide wastes,
sludges containing heavy metals
“Cradle to Grave”
Applies to those who:
 generate
 recycle
 transport
 treat
 store
 dispose
Generators - Classifications
 Large Quantity Generator
Generates greater than 1000 kg/mo (5 drums)
 Small Quantity Generator
Generates 100 kg/mo to 1000 kg/mo (1/2 drum
- 5 drums)
 Conditionally Exempt SQG
Generates less than 100 kg/mo (1/2 drum)
Generators - Responsibilities
 Tracking
Identification number
Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest
 Package/mark/label waste
 File biennial reports (LQG)
Specific Generator
Responsibilities

Large quantity generator
90 day storage limit
Contingency plan
Documented training
45 day exception reports

Small quantity generator
180 day storage limit (270 days if >200 miles)
Undocumented training
60 day exception reports
Transporters
 Comply with DOT provisions for labeling,
marking, placarding, and using proper containers
 EPA ID Number
 Maintain manifests
 Spill cleanup
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal
(TSD) Facilities

Some requirements include:
EPA ID number
Permit
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Physical and chemical analysis
Security
Inspection plan
Training
Equipment
Contingency plan
Manifests
Biennial reports
Closure/post closure
Tracking & Permitting Systems
Tracking System
 EPA Identification Number
 Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest
Permitting System
 Precautions to manage waste
Land Disposal Restrictions
Requires treatment before land disposal
Types of land disposal include:
- Landfills
- Surface impoundments
- Underground injection wells
- Waste piles
The State’s Role
 Oversee hazardous waste tracking system
 Operate the permitting system
 Ensure public participation requirements are met
 Act as enforcement
Subtitle D: MSW and Industrial
Solid Waste
 Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Trash generated homes, industries, and commercial
and institutional offices
 Industrial solid waste/industrial hazardous waste
Wastes and wastewaters generated by
manufacturing processes that are not considered
hazardous

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