A Portal-based System for Quality Assurance of

Report
A portal-based system for quality assurance of radiotherapy treatment
plans using Grid-enabled High Performance Computing clusters
Ian C. Smith1
CR Baker2, V Panettieri3, C Addison1, AE Nahum3
1 Computing
Services Dept, University of Liverpool; 2 Directorate of Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy,
University of Liverpool; 3 Physics Department, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology
Outline

Introduction to radiotherapy treatment planning

University of Liverpool Grid Computing Server (GCS)

GCS tools

Command line job submission using the GCS

UL-GRID Portal

Results

Future directions
Rationale

Routine radiotherapy treatment planning is constrained by lack of
sufficiently powerful computing resources

Monte Carlo (MC) based codes can provide accurate absorbed
dose calculations but are computationally demanding (single
simulation can take 3 weeks on a desktop machine)

Fortunately MC methods are inherently parallel – can run on HPC
resources and (for some codes) HTC resources

So far looked at looked running simulations on local and centrally
funded HPC clusters in a user-friendly manner

Starting to look at using Condor pools
Radiotherapy codes


Two MC codes have been investigated to date:
MCNPX (beta v2.7a)

general purpose transport code, tracks nearly all particles at nearly all
energies (https://mcnpx.lanl.gov/).
 parallel (MPI-based) code, only runs on clusters
 self contained – no need for pre- and post- processing steps

PENELOPE
 general purpose MC code implemented as a set of FORTRAN routines
 coupled electron-photon transport from 50 eV to 1 GeV in arbitrary
materials and complex geometries[1].
 serial implementation, will run on clusters and Condor pools
 needs pre- and post- processing to set up input files and combine partial
results

Starting to look at EGSnrc / BEAMnrc / DOSXYZnrc
[1] Salvat F, Fernández-Varea JM, Sempau J. PENELOPE, a code system for
Monte Carlo simulation of electron and photon transport. France: OECD Nuclear
Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux; 2008. ISBN 9264023011. Available in pdf
format at: http://www.nea.fr.
Courtesy of Prof. A.
Nahum (CCO)
Simulation of an electron
treatment: from the
treatment head to the patient
(taken from Cygler et al)
Grid Computing Server / UL-GRID Portal
Grid Computing Server / UL-GRID software
stack
Grid Computing Server tools

single sign on to resources via MyProxy, use ulg-get-proxy (proxies
automatically renewed)

job management is very similar to local batch systems such as SGE: ulgqsub, ulg-qstat, ulg-qdel etc

support for submitting large numbers of jobs, file staging and pre- and
post- processing

job submission process is the same for all compute clusters (local or
external)

utility tools1 provide simple Grid based extensions to standard UNIX
commands: ulg-cp, ulg-ls, ulg-rm, ulg-mkdir etc.

status commands available e.g. ulg-status, ulg-rqstat
1
based on GROWL scripts from STFC Daresbury
PENELOPE (serial code) workflows
create random seeds for N
input files using clonEasy[1]
create random seeds
for
input files using
 NRereasdasdas
clonEasy[1]
repeat for
other patients
compute individual
phase-space file
stage-in phase-space file
(only if necessary)
compute partial treatment
simulation results
combine N individual
phase-space files
combine partial treatment
simulation results using clonEasy[1]
phase-space file
calculation
patient treatment simulation
HPC cluster
Portal
[1] Badal A and Sempau J 2006 A package of Linux scripts for the parallelization
of Monte Carlo simulations Comput.Phys. Commun. 175 440–50
GCS job description files for PENELOPE (1)
#
# create phase space file (PSF)
#
job_type = remote_script
host = ulgbc2
total_jobs = 16
name = penelopeLPO
pre_processor = /opt1/ulgrid/apps/penelope/seed_input_files
pre_processor_arguments = penmain_acc6_LPO35_.in 16
indexed_input_files = penmain_acc6_LPO35_.in
input_files = spectrum_pE_6_LPO35.geo, 6MW_2.mat
executable = /usr/local/bin/run_penmain
arguments= penmain_acc6_LPO35_INDEX.in penmain_LPO35_INDEX.out
log = mylogfile
GCS job description files for PENELOPE (2)
#
# perform patient simulation using previously calculated phase space file (PSF)
#
job_type = remote_script
host = ulgbc2
name = penelope
total_jobs = 10
pre_processor=/opt1/ulgrid/apps/penelope/seed_input_files
pre_processor_arguments=penmain.in 10
staged_input_files=PSF_test.psf
input_remote_stage_dir=staging
input_files = water_phantom.geo,water.mat
indexed_input_files = penmain.in
executable = /usr/local/bin/run_penmain
arguments= penmainINDEX.in penmainINDEX.out ics
log = penelope.log
Condor job files for PENELOPE
# job description file
grid_resource = gt2 ulgbc2.liv.ac.uk/jobmanager-condorg
universe = grid
executable = /usr/local/bin/run_penmain
arguments = penmain_acc6_LPO35_$(PROCESS).in penmain_LPO35_$(PROCESS).out ics_test
+ulg_job_name = penelopeLPO
log = log
transfer_input_files = spectrum_pE_6_LPO35.geo, 6MW_2.mat, penmain_acc6_LPO35_$(PROCESS).in
transfer_files = always
transfer_executable = FALSE
GlobusRSL = (count=1)(job_type=remote_script) \
(input_working_directory=/condor_data/smithic/penelope/big_test/create_psf) \
(job_name=penelopeLPO)
notification = never
queue 16
# DAG file
JOB pre_process dummy1.sub
JOB staging penelopeLPO35.sub
SCRIPT PRE pre_process /opt1/ulgrid/apps/penelope/seed_input_files
PARENT pre_process CHILD staging
GCS job submission and monitoring
smithic(ulgp4)create_psf$ ulg-qsub penelopeLPO35
Grid job submitted successfully, Job ID is 125042
smithic(ulgp4)create_psf$ ulg-qstat
Job ID
------
125015.0
125034.0
125035.0
125038.0
125042.0
125043.0
125044.0
125044.0
Job Name
--------
penelopeLPO
penelope
penelope
penelope
penelopeLPO
mcnpx3
mcnpx3
gamess_test
Owner
-----
State
-----
smithic
vpanetti
vpanetti
smithic
smithic
colinb
colinb
bonarlaw
pr
r
w
si
qw
r
r
r
Cores
-----
1
1
1
1
1
64
64
32
Host
----
ulgbc2.liv.ac.uk
ulgbc2.liv.ac.uk
ulgbc2.liv.ac.uk
ulgbc2.liv.ac.uk
ulgbc2.liv.ac.uk
ulgbc4.liv.ac.uk
lancs2.nw-grid.ac.uk
ngs.rl.ac.uk
Lung treatment simulated with PENELOPE and penVOX 07
7 fields
PSF calculation 1.5 days (14 cores) approximately 1.5 million particles
Patient calculation 1.5 days for all 7 fields (single core) Statistical uncertainty 1% (1 sigma)
Proton absorbed dose in water using MCNPX
2.5cm diameter beam, full
energy (~60 MeV at patient,
~3.2 cm range in water)
500 million histories
0.5x0.5x5 mm voxels
50keV proton cut-off
Bragg peak
<1% statistical uncertainty in
absorbed dose in high dose
region (1s)
Half-modulation
Future Directions

Provide support for BEAM[1] and DOSxyz[3] (based on the EGSnrc
MC code [2])

Utilise Liverpool Windows Condor Pool for running PENELOPE
jobs

Compare with other implementations e.g. RT-Grid.
References:
[1] 23D. W. Rogers, B. Faddegon, G. X. Ding, C. M. Ma, J. Wei, and T. Mackie, “BEAM: A Monte Carlo code to
simulate radiotherapy treatment units,” Med. Phys. 22, 503–524 _1995_.
[2] Kawrakow and D. W. O. Rogers. The EGSnrc Code System: Monte Carlo simulation of electron and photon
transport. Technical Report PIRS-701 (4th printing), National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2003.
[3] Walters B, Kawrakow I and Rogers D W O 2007 DOSXYZnrc Users Manual Report PIRS 794 (Ottawa: National
Research Council of Canada)

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