Driving In Different Environments & Situations

Report
Driving In
Different
Environments &
Situations
Chapter 9
Urban Traffic
• Heavy, fast moving traffic
• Traffic is more dense than in rural areas
• More trucks, buses, cars & pedestrians
• Hazards are closer
• City roads have the highest number and variety of
hazards
• Remember, it takes time to do the IPDE process
• If you can’t increase the distance between
you and the hazard, you must change your
lane position, slow or stop to give time for
the conflict to resolve
Urban Traffic
• In heavy traffic situations, focus on driving,
avoid distractions
• Road Rage / Aggressive Drivers
• Be cool, drop back, give driver distance
Following Traffic
• Advantages of having adequate following
distance
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See further ahead … see the “big picture”
Others can see you better
More time to use the IPDE process
Better position to avoid car that suddenly stops
• 3 Second Following Distance
• Safe cushion in most normal driving situations
Following Traffic
• 3 Second Rule – continued
• As speed increases so will the following
distance
• 3 Second Distance is NOT the total stopping
distance needed to avoid hitting a stationary
object
• 3 Second Rule protects you from hitting the car
in front of you
• Increase following distance under adverse
conditions
Following Distance
• Situations for greater Following Distance
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New driver – need more time for IPDE process
Being tailgated
Approaching a Line of Sight Restriction
Low Traction
Carrying a heavy load
Following a motorcycle
Following a distracted driver
Following Distance
• Other strategies to help Following Distance
• Look over or through the vehicle you are
following
• Look for brake lights
• Anticipate areas of sudden stops
• Intersections
• Areas with parked vehicles
• Business areas
Looking Away
• If necessary….
• Check to make sure zone ahead is stable and
open
• Increase following distance
• Lower speed
• Keep eyes moving
• Use a passenger to look for whatever is needed
Tailgaters
• Someone following too closely
• Danger: If you have to stop fast they may hit
you
• Protective Actions:
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Increase following distance to 4 seconds
Move slightly to the right
Signal Early
In extreme cases, pull over
Oncoming Traffic
• Driver crosses the center line into your front zone
• Reasons Why?
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Driver Impairment
Poor Judgment
Poor Visibility
Reduced Space (Parked car, snow bank, double parked vehicle)
Sudden move by others
Vehicle Failure
Turning Buses & Trucks
Double Parked Vehicles
Oncoming Traffic
• Avoiding Oncoming Traffic
• Slow allow driver time to return to his lane
• Flash headlights / honk horn
• Move to the right (if right front zone is open)
Managing Space in
Urban Traffic
• Aim High
• In city traffic aim one block or more ahead
• Gives you time to adjust to problems ahead
• Following Semi’s
• Maintain safe following distance (pg 182) so you
have a good view of road ahead
• Traffic Signals
• Can use pedestrian cross signals to alert you to light
change
• Example: DON’T WALK - warns you the light is about
to turn yellow
Managing Space in
Urban Traffic
• Covering the Brake
• Take foot off accelerator and hold it over the
brake
• Reduces reaction time
• Riding the Brake
• Resting your foot on the brake pedal
• Wears brakes
• Confuses drivers behind you
• Remember: Flash your brakes when planning to
stop
Managing Space in
Urban Traffic
• Precautions when passing parked vehicles
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Cover brake and move to lane position 2
Look for drivers through windows
Look for exhaust or wheels turned out
Tap on your horn
Be prepared to stop or swerve
Drive at least one car door length away
Managing Space in
Urban Traffic
• Adjusting speed
• Drive with traffic flow
• Stay within speed limit
• Driving faster only slightly saves time
• The faster you are traveling the less time is saved
by traveling faster
• Graph pg 185
Managing Space in
Urban Traffic
• Select the best lane
• Left lane usually for faster moving traffic
• Left lanes can be a problem on two lane roads without
turn lanes
• Choose the lane where traffic is the smoothest
• Usually center lane
• Changing Lanes
• Mirror – Blinker – Blind spot
• When passing, must see both headlights in rearview
mirror before returning to the right lane
• Special Lanes
• Buses & Car Pooling
One Way Streets
• One Way Streets can…
• Move greater volume of traffic
• Generally, less congested
• Produce fewer conflicts
• Identifying One Way Streets
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Posted Signs
All cars moving or parked in one direction
Only broken white lines are visible
All traffic signs facing in the same direction
One Way Streets
• Lane Choice
• Entering
• Leaving
• Signaling Wrong Way Drivers
• Slow
• Steer Right
• Sound Horn

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