Slide 1

Report
Human Development Reports in India
From Analysis to Action
K. Seeta Prabhu
UNDP India
Presented at IGIDR 19 June 2009
India
Structure of Presentation
 The Setting
 HD Analysis- State HDRs & Challenges
 Policy Impact
 Moving to HD Action
 SSPHD
 What Next?
India
India- The Setting
India
• 1.15 billion people- median age: 24. 8 years
• Rich diversity
– Hindu : 80.5 %, Muslim: 13.4 %,
– Christian 2.3 %, Sikh 1.9 %
– 15 national languages
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Parliamentary Democracy
Federal Republic – Focus on Decentralisation
Independent Media
Right to Information Act
High Growth but Challenge of Inclusion…..
India
• High growth rate - poverty declined from 36%-27.5 % between
1994 and 2004 (1$a day- 34 . 2%, 2$a day- 80.4%)
• HDI value in 2005 India -0.619, rank 128
•
China -0.777, rank 81
• Absolute numbers of deprived gigantic
• 301 mn Poor >total pop Brazil 181mn + Japan 128 mn
• 296 mn Illiterate > total pop United States 292 mn
• 233 mn Undernourished = total pop Indonesia 217 mn +
Ghana 21 mn
• India’s performance will have impact on MDGs globally
HD Analysis - The Demand
India
 India’s Eighth Plan (1992 - 1997) ‘Human development ultimate
goal of all planning’
 Global launch of HDR 1993 in New Delhi acted as trigger
 First step towards State level HDR by Madhya Pradesh
 Govt prepared HDR from own resources - released1995
 Followed by Govt of Karnataka - 1999
 UNDP role - technical support
 Demand from other State governments
The Response
Planning Commission (Govt of India) - UNDP project
Capacity Development for State HDRs 1999-2002-2005
Given India’s size and diversity focus on provincial HDRs
UNDP commitment - 500,000 USD
- Dedicated unit formed in August 2000
Principles of HDR preparation- Government ownership
Participatory process
Independence of analysis
India
HDR Preparation Gathers Momentum
India
Jammu &
Kashmir
Himachal
Pradesh
Punja
Uttaranc
Haryan
b
hal
a
Delhi
Rajastha
n
Sikki
m
Uttar
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtr
a
Andhr
a
Prades
h
Karnata
ka
Tamil
Nadu
Keral
a
Assa
m
Bihar
Jharkhand
Gujara
t
Go
a
Arunachal
Pradesh
Chhattisg
Oriss
arh
a
West
Beng
al
Meghala
ya
Nagalan
d
Manip
Tripuur
ra
Mizora
m
Follow-up underway with
Planning Commission-UNDP
assistance
SHDRs launched
SHDRs being finalised
Andaman
& Nicobar
Island
Challenges
Govt ownership and participatory process - Initiatives
• Wide ranging participation
– NGOs, academics, government
• Open review of draft
• Chhattisgarh- people’s participation
• NHDR Award for Participatory processes
• Chhattisgarh clip.wmv
Government’s fear of public opinion
• Adversarial nature of dialogue
between NGOs and Govt
India
Challenges
Govt ownership & Quality of Analysis- Initiatives
• Independent institutions/researchers
– Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, Kerala
• Data from authentic sources- Census, NSS, NFHS
• Editors from media – Maharashtra
• Reputed academics as lead authors – West Bengal
HDR award for Excellence in Quality of Analysis in 2004
Constraints
– Defensive government departments
– Lack of understanding of product as
different from departmental report
– Fear of public backlash
India
Challenges
Govt ownership & independence of analysis-Initiatives
• Involving media from the beginning
• Involving wide range of stakeholders
• Soft advocacy on potential use for policy action
Constraints
• Change in political regimes -Chhattisgarh, UP
• Proximity of state elections –Himachal Pradesh
• Strong opinions of diverse groups – Manipur
• Social groups issues not addressed- NHDR evaluation
India
Impact of State HDRs
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India
Increased allocation to social sectors
Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra HD budget
Newer Institutional mechanisms- holistic planning and
monitoring
– Poverty and HD division in Karnataka
– HD and poverty chapterin Economic Survey - Karnataka
– HD Mission in Maharashtra for low HDI districts
More intensive study on priority issues for policy action
– Sikkim focus on education system
– West Bengal focus on landlessness
NHDR Evaluation
India
• NHDR Evaluation- India as case study- p.26
• ‘State Reports have affected social policies most especially
those dealing with education and health and have led to more
policy oriented research’
• ‘In some States, HDRs have had a particularly strong impact
including major media attention, mentioned in State Assembly
debates and establishment of new government policies to
address issues raised’
• ‘In general, have led to better understanding of the concept of
human development’
• Limitation – still equated with HDI – broader concept yet to be
understood fully
Moving Beyond Analysis to Action
India
Planning Commission (Govt Of India) UNDP Project CCF II 20042007
Strengthening State Plans for Human Development
UNDP core resources – USD 5 million – now close to11 million
USD up to 2009
Thrust Areas
– Capacity Building for Human Development
– Strengthening State Statistical Systems
– Financing for Human Development
Thrust Areas – Capacity Building for HD
India
• Institutional Mechanisms
– HDRC units for coordination of HD initiatives
– Steering Cmt drawn from all relevant departments
• Influencing Planning and Policy
– District HDRs in low HDI districts- tools for planning
– State Level MDG based PRSPs
– Chapters on HD in State Plans/Economic Survey
Capacity Building for HD
India
Capacity Building
-Training in State Administrative Training Insitutes
- Curriculum in Universities with UGC support
-Gender training added with additional core resources (1.5
million USD)
• Advocacy
- State Level Strategies supported with DFID funding (1.5
million USD)
- 23 Films by Film and Television Institute of India
- Calendars on MDGs and HD
Financing Options
India
• Social Sectors mainly in State Government domain in
division of responsibilities between Centre and States
• State governments experienced fiscal stringency during
period of economic reforms
• Initiatives
– Action Research on financing options for State
Governments
– Policy notes on options both on revenue and expenditure
sides
– Quarterly Training Programme by the Central Bank of the
country on Financing for Human Development
Strengthening Statistical Systems
India
• Partnership with Central Statistical Organisation
• Focus on training and methodologies for estimating
– District level per capita District Domestic Product
– District poverty – Advisory Cmt with Planning
Commission
– District IMR and Life Expectancy
– District level HD/MDG indicators for HD
monitoring
Progress and Impact
India
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XII Finance Commission’s use of HDI
XI Five year Plan focus on Inclusive growth- HD approach
HD chapters in 8 State level Five Year Plans
Courses on HD in 3 Universities
HD integrated into Indian Administrative Service course
15 State Training Institutes deliver HD modules on regular basis
for state & district departmental staff - through satellite in
Karnataka for local bodies (17000 at a time)
• Project expansion from 8 states to 14 - spur to complete
SHDRs
Next Steps
India
• HD monitoring-people oriented process- PAHELI - HD
Report Cards
• Use of HD cards by UNDAF districts for UN system
planning – demand from Rajasthan, Orissa and Punjab
• Linking NREGS with human development – Swaminathan’s
suggestion – action initiated by Rural Development Ministry
• Gender disaggregated data and gender budgeting with
UNIFEM – training on gender budgeting for State
Governments
• Special focus on disadvantaged sections
Next Steps
India
• Integration with Governance portfolio Capacity building
initiatives for local bodies
• Integrated planning surpassing departmental boundaries
• Integrated in UNDP Cy Programme
• 50 District HDRs at various stages of finalisation –
Bankura, Malda and Birbhum already released – used as
tools for district planning
• State governments extending DHDR preparation to all
districts – e.g West Bengal
• National HDR in 2009?
What helped
• Strong commitment by all concerned
• UNDP
– Dedicated staff within UNDP
– Dedicated and sustained core resources over two
project cycles
• Planning Commission
– Strong ownership
– Consistent monitoring
– Persuasion in State plan discussions
• Political commitment
– Legislators’ forums in States
– Continuous dialogue with parliamentarians on HD
India
Looking forward to
India
HDRs- 50 District HDRs as tools for district planning
HDRs- 13 city PRSPs owned by municipal corporations
Data- district level HD monitoring- report cards
Advocacy- Films, MDG oriented PRSPs
Research - network of young research scholars on HD
Teaching -Graduates and Diploma holders in HD – TISS
Certificate Course on HD and Social Accountability in 2009
• Action- District collectors and panchayat members sensitised
to HD approach-use DHDRs as tools
• Financing options for HD identified and acted upon
• HDI used for resource allocation by XIII Finance Cmn
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India

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