Assessment in an RTI Environment

Report
Assessment in an RTI
Environment
Michael C. McKenna
University of Virginia
[email protected]
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comprehensivereadingsolutions.com
Why assess?
To plan instruction
Screening
Diagnostic
To see if it works
Progress Monitoring
Screening
test
No problem
indicated
Problem
identified
No further
testing
Diagnostic
test
Targeted
instruction
Progress
monitoring
Problem
addressed
Problem not
addressed
Screening
test
No problem
indicated
Problem
identified
No further
testing
Diagnostic
test
Targeted
instruction
Progress
monitoring
Problem
addressed
Problem not
addressed
Screening
test
No problem
indicated
Problem
identified
No further
testing
Diagnostic
test
Targeted
instruction
Progress
monitoring
Problem
addressed
Problem not
addressed
Screening
test
No problem
indicated
Problem
identified
No further
testing
Diagnostic
test
Targeted
instruction
Progress
monitoring
Problem
addressed
Problem not
addressed
Myths about diagnostic assessment
Myths about diagnostic assessment
 You
need lots to make RTI work.
 Only specialists can give them.
Standard Protocol or
Problem Solving Approach?
Cognitive Model of Assessment
Cognitive Model of Assessment
Stages of reading development?
Fluency
Word
Recognition
Phonemic
Awareness
Oral Language
Development
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Stages of reading development?
Fluency
Word
Recognition
Phonemic
Awareness
An assessment strategy for
foundational skills
Fluency
Word
Recognition
Phonemic
Awareness
An assessment strategy for
foundational skills
Fluency
Word
Recognition
Phonemic
Awareness
An assessment strategy for
foundational skills
Fluency
Word
Recognition
Phonemic
Awareness
An assessment toolkit
Screening
Informal
(Comprehension or Fluency)
Decoding Inventory
Sight Word
Fluency
Inventory
Checks
An assessment toolkit
Screening
Informal
(Comprehension or Fluency)
Decoding Inventory
Sight Word
Fluency
Inventory
Checks
Informal Decoding Inventory
Part I: Single-Syllable Decoding
 Short Vowels
 Consonant Blends and Digraphs
 R-Controlled Vowel Patterns
 Vowel-Consonant-e
 Vowel Teams
Part II: Multisyllabic Decoding
 Compound Words
 Closed Syllables
 Open Syllables
 VC-e Syllables
 R-controlled Syllables
 Vowel Team Syllables
 C+le Syllables
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
1.
Miscue analysis is a
waste of time.
Her bangs were over her eyes.
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
2.
Decoding skills should
be assessed in isolation.
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
3.
Informal reading
inventories are unreliable.
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
4.
There is no diagnostic
test of comprehension.
Cognitive Model of Assessment
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
5.
Comprehension can’t be
progress monitored.
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
6.
There’s no good way to
assess vocabulary.
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
9.
Motivation is important.
Some inconvenient truths
about assessment
8.
Kids are complicated.
New Terms Old Terms
Tier 3
Remedial
Tier 2
Corrective
Tier 1
Developmental
A stairway to proficiency
In our approach, all students
receive differentiated
instruction in small groups.
We therefore like to call it
response to instruction.
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Yes
Fluency and Comprehension
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Yes
Fluency and Comprehension
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
No
Is the child at benchmark in
decoding?
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Yes
Fluency and Comprehension
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Teacher Reads Aloud)
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
No
Is the child at benchmark in
decoding?
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Yes
Fluency and Comprehension
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Teacher Reads Aloud)
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
No
Is the child at benchmark in
decoding?
No
Has the child acquired full
phonological awareness?
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Yes
Fluency and Comprehension
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Teacher Reads Aloud)
Yes
Word Recognition and Fluency
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
No
Is the child at benchmark in
decoding?
No
Has the child acquired full
phonological awareness?
Is the child at benchmark in
oral reading fluency?
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Children Read)
Yes
Fluency and Comprehension
Yes
Vocabulary and Comprehension
(Teacher Reads Aloud)
Yes
Word Recognition and Fluency
No
Are all or nearly all decoding
skills mastered?
No
Is the child at benchmark in
decoding?
No
Has the child acquired full
phonological awareness?
No
Phonemic Awareness and
Word Recognition
If fluency is weak, you should
A. Use research-based fluency strategies
like repeated readings, partner reading,
etc.
B. Check first to see if there are significant
gaps in word recognition skills.
If both fluency and word recognition are
weak, you should
A. Use research-based word recognition
strategies that are explicit and
systematic.
B. Check first to see if there are significant
gaps in phonological awareness.
Four
Basic
Groups
{
Vocabulary and Comprehension
Students
Teacher Reading
Reading
Fluency and Comprehension
First Grade
Second Grade Third Grade
Reader
Reader
Reader
Blends and
Digraphs
Word Recognition and Fluency
R-Controlled
VowelVowel Teams
Vowels
Consonant- E
Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition
Basic
Using
Using
Alphabet Knowle d g e
Letter Sound s
Letter Patterns
Takeaways
 You
don’t need many assessments at Tier 2.
 Get rid of the ones you don’t need.
 Use your toolkit to form small groups.
 Reassess every three weeks.
 Aim for “upward mobility” on the staircase.
 Don’t forget motivation.
 Check out each of the group types at:
www.comprehensivereadingsolutions.com
References
Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. (2011). The classroom assessment of reading. In M. L. Kamil, P.
D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 4,
pp. 487-514). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
McKenna, M. C., & Picard, M. (2006/2007). Does miscue analysis have a role in
effective practice? The Reading Teacher, 60, 378-380.
McKenna, M. C., & Stahl, K. A. D. (2009). Assessment for reading instruction (2nd ed.).
New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Pearson, P. D., Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (2007). Vocabulary assessment: What we
know and what we need to learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 42, 282-296.
Spector, J. E. (2005). How reliable are informal reading inventories? Psychology in the
Schools, 42, 593-603.
Stahl, K. A. D., & McKenna, M. C. (2012). Reading assessment in an RTI framework. New
York, NY: Guilford Press.
Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2006). The role of informal reading inventories in
assessing word recognition. The Reading Teacher, 59, 592-594.
Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2009). How to plan differentiated reading instruction:
Resources for grades K-3. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Walpole, S., McKenna, M. C., & Philippakos, Z. (2011). Differentiated reading instruction
in grades 4 and 5: Strategies and resources. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
More resources …
http://curry.virginia.edu/reading-projects/projects/garf/

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