Chapter 9 Powerpoint

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Motivation Ch 9
PSY 1000
Motivation

Process by which activities are started, directed, and
continued
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Meets our physical and psychological needs or wants
Types of Motivation
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Extrinsic Motivation
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Perform and action that leads to an outcome outside of self
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Work for money
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Decreases creativity
Intrinsic Motivation
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Perform an action because the act
itself is rewarding or satisfying
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Good grades to feel proud
Physical challenges

Becomes ours
Approaches to Motivation
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Instinct
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Biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior
William McDougall proposed 18 instincts for humans
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Frued Psychoanalytical Theory
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Flight, running away
Aggressiveness
Gathering possessions
Concepts of instincts reside in the id, basic human needs and drives
This theory has faded since it is able to describe the behavior
but not explain it
Approaches to Motivation
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Drive Reduction
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Behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal
drive to satisfy need and reduce tension
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Primary Drive
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Acquired (secondary) Drive
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Learned through experience or conditioning
Money
Social approval
Homeostasis
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Survival needs of the body such as hunger, thirst
Body is in a state of imbalance
Body maintains a steady state
Does not explain all human behavior
Approaches to Motivation
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Arousal
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The need for stimulation
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Curiosity, playing, exploration
People have an optimal level of tension
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Some tasks may have a high level of arousal
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Anxiety over a test
Nervous over a first date
Maintaining an optimal level may require increasing or decreasing
tension
Sensation Seekers
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Need more complex and varied sensory experiences than do others
Approaches to Motivation
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Incentive
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Things that attract or lure people into action
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External stimulus and its rewarding properties
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No need
No tension
Expectancy-value Theories
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Actions of humans cannot be fully understood without understanding
the persons beliefs and values
Approaches to Motivation
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Humanistic
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
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Several level of needs to fulfill before a person achieves the highest
level of personality fulfillment
Self-actualization the highest level
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Person is fully satisfied with all the lower levels in their lives
Seldom reached
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
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Many management programs are based on this model
Issues
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No concrete research or study
Based on Maslow’s observations
Studies of Americans
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Cross cultural needs /order of needs may differ
Self Determination Theory
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Self-Determination theory
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Three inborn and universal needs
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Help a person gain a complete sense of self and healthy relationships
with others
Autonomy
1.
1.
Need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals
Competence
2.
1.
Need to be able to master the challenging tasks of one’s life
Relatedness
3.
1.
Need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in
relationships with others
Emotions

Feeling aspect of
consciousness
Physiology of Emotions
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When experiencing an emotion
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Arousal is created by the sympathetic nervous system
Many emotions have the same physiological response
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Heart rate increases
Body temp changes
Behavior of Emotions
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Facial expressions
Body movements
Actions
Most are culturally universal
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Display rules
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When the emotion is displayed
Subjective Experience: Labeling Emotions
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Interpreting the feelings by giving it a label
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Anger, sad, happy
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Learned response influenced by their language and
culture
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Goal of psychologists engaged in cross cultural research is
to understand the meaning of a persons mental and
emotional state without interpreting them incorrectly
Theories of Emotion
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Original thought of emotions were
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Feeling emotion
Behavior that responded to emotion
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Event leads to
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Arousal leads to
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Interpretation or
Emotion or
Reasoning or
Cognitive labels
James-Lange Theory
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Event
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Arousal
Interpretation
Emotion
We will read what our body says and then label the emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory
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Event
Arousal
Emotion
Body responds and we label emotion at the same time
Schachter-Singer and cognitive Arousal
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Event
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Arousal
Cognitive Labels
Emotion
Physical arousal and the labeling must occur before the
emotion is experienced
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
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Event
Arousal/change of facial expression
Emotion
What our facial expression is will go to the brain and the
emotion will intensify
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Emotion being expressed can cause the emotion
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HAPPY
Lazarus and the Cognitive-Mediational
Theory
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Event
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Interpretation
Emotion
Arousal
Event causes us to interpret what is going on then we label the
emotion and our body responds

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