Names and other terms for ch 29-31

(a) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one
of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known
as the "Father of Classical Liberalism” His idea on the social
contract and sanctity of property were influential in the Decl
of Ind
(b) was King of France from 1774 until his deposition in 1792,
although his formal title after 1791 was King of the French. He
was executed during the French Revolution
(c0 was
a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and key Scottish
Enlightenment figure.[1]best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments
(1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter,
usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first
modern work of economics
(a) was the leader of the Haitian Revolution.
His military genius and political acumen
transformed an entire society of slaves into the
independent state of Haiti.[2] The success of
the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of
slavery throughout the New World
(b) In the 1860s he engineered a
series of wars that unified the
German states (excluding Austria)
into a powerful German Empire
© a Venezuelan military and political leader. He played a key role in Latin
America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire,
and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the
history of the Americas. Wrote the JAMAICA Letter (acorn 5.3 b)
(a) His conception of liberty
justified the freedom of the
individual in opposition to
unlimited state control.[4]
(b) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist,
journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His work in economics
laid the basis for much of the current understanding of
labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic
thought.[5][6][7][8] He is one of the founders of
sociology[9][10][11][12] and social science.[13][14][15] He published
numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being
The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867–
© was an eighteenth-century English writer, philosopher, and
advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote
novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French
Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft
best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792),
(a) was a Mexican Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of
Independence. Organized peasants and the poor to fight.
(b) was a French military and political leader
who rose to prominence during the latter
stages of the French Revolution and its
associated wars., he was Emperor of the
French from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815.
Nationalism comes from the word "Nation". a Nation is a group of people of (usually, but
not always) the same race, history, culture, language and geographical territory.
Nationalism is the belief that every nation has the right to rule independently the land
that they lived on for the whole history.
E. The development and spread of na______________ as an ideology fostered
new communal identities (such as the German nation, Filipino nationalism or
Liberian nationalism).
Italy & Germany (1871)
The Social Contract
What do these definitions have in common?
(1) an implicit agreement among the members of a society
to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing
some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of
a social contract became popular in the 16th, 17th, and
18th centuries among theorists such as Thomas Hobbes,
John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as a means of
explaining the origin of government and the obligations of
(2) (Philosophy) (in the theories of Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, and
others) an agreement, entered into by individuals, that results in the
formation of the state or of organized society, the prime motive being
the desire for protection, which entails the surrender of some or all
personal liberties
(3) the voluntary agreement among individuals by which, according to any of
various theories, as of Hobbes, Locke, or Rousseau, organized society is brought
into being and invested with the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or
to regulate the relations among its members.
V. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of
In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working
conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist
exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions of society(Utopian
socialism, Marxism, Anarchism)
Anarchism is defined as the “political theory holding all forms of government
authority to be unnecessary and undesirable and advocating a society based on
voluntary cooperation and free association of individuals and groups” Anarchy is
Latin for anarchia meaning “lack of leader”, which is derived from the Greek
word anarchos which literally means, “without government”
Anarchism is formed on the idea that human beings are inherently good, and because
of this they are better off without the corrupting institution of government. Anarchists
believed that in the absence of government, humans would still have shared values
which would prevent the chaos predicted by many. Anarchists maintain that if humans
were given the freedom from oppressive institutions, their inherent good qualities
would prevail
Political groups that sought the abolition of all formal government;
particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually
became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II
in 1881.
anarchism A stateless society that allows total individual freedom.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as selfgoverned voluntary institutions,] but that several authors have defined as more specific
institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations.Anarchism holds the state to be
undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful
Anarchism vs Marxism
• In his book State and Revolution, Lenin stated: “The
proletariat needs the state only temporarily. We do not at
all disagree with the anarchists on the question of the
abolition of the state as the aim. We maintain that, to
achieve this aim, we must temporarily make use of the
instruments resources and methods of state power against
the exploiters.”
• Similarly, Trotsky wrote in an essay Stalinism and
Bolshevisms: “Marxists are wholly in agreement with the
anarchists in regard to the final goal: the liquidation of the
state. Marxists are statist only to the extent that one
cannot achieve the liquidation of the state simply by
ignoring it.” -
established ideal communities
that focus on creating an equitable
society where cooperation was
emphasized and everyone works
in accordance with their
based on a belief that social ownership of the
means of production can be achieved by
voluntary and peaceful surrender of their
holdings by propertied groups which are
turned over to communities
III. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers
developed and expanded various financial institutions.
A. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of
capitalism and classical lib____________ associated with Adam ________and John
Stuart Mill.
Classical liberalism is a political philosophy and ideology
belonging to liberalism in which primary emphasis is
placed on securing the freedom of the individual by
limiting the power of the government. The philosophy
emerged as a response to the Industrial Revolution and
urbanization in the 19th century in Europe and the
United States.[1] It advocates civil liberties with a limited
government under the rule of law, private property, and
belief in laissez-faire economic policy
Classical liberalism is a philosophy committed to the ideal of limited government
and liberty of individuals including freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and
free markets.[1]
Classical liberalism developed in the nineteenth century in Western Europe, and the
Americas. Although classical liberalism built on ideas that had already developed by
the end of the eighteenth century, it advocated a specific kind of society,
government and public policy required as a result of the Industrial Revolution and
In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism some governments
mitigated the negative effects of industrial capitalism by promoting various types
of reforms (such as state pensions and public health in Germany, expansion of
suffrage in Britain or public education in many states).

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