Exploring Transportation Where it started Steam Engines http://vulpeslibris.wordpress.com/2010/07/02/riverboat-the-evolution-of-atelevision-series-and-the-steamboat-era-both-by-s-l-kotar-and-j-e-gessler/ http://chuckmanchicagonostalgia.wordpress.com/2012/11/25/photo-chicago-train-chicago-st-paul-minneapolis-andomaha-railroad-steam-engine-93-and-crew-early/photo-chicago-train-chicago-st-paul-minneapolis-and-omaharailroad-steam-engine-93-and-crew-early/ And finally, modern technology Internal Combustion Engine Nikolaus August Otto, patent 1876 Part of nearly all private passenger vehicles Plentiful petroleum led to use of gasoline in the engine Fuel mixed with air then injected Uses electric spark for explosion 250+ million cars now registered in U.S. Diesel Engine Rudolph Diesel, invented 1878 Another form of internal combustion engine Direct fuel injection No spark plug Fuel ignites at its flash point More efficient than gasoline engines of day Current IC Engines Thermal efficiency (26-34%) Mechanical efficiency (94%) Overall efficiency (20%) Emissions • • • • • Particulate matter NOx Sulfur oxides Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Alternatives to Petroleum-based Fuels Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) • Cleaner, does not emit nitrogen and sulfur oxides, or all the particulate matter • Still releases carbon dioxide Hydrogen fuel cells (used at Vancouver Olympics) • • • • Only emission is water vapor Lots of energy required to generate hydrogen Lack of infrastructure Currently prohibitively expensive Alternatives to Petroleum-based Fuels LNG Fuel blends (Ethanol, biodiesel) Hybrid vehicles All Electric vehicles For More Information The NEED Project www.need.org [email protected] 1-800-875-5029 Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy www.eia.gov NEED IS SOCIAL Stay up-to-date with NEED. “Like” us on Facebook! Search for The NEED Project, and check out all we’ve got going on! Follow us on Twitter. We share the latest energy news from around the country, @NEED_Project. Follow us on Instagram and check out the photos taken at NEED events, instagram.com/theneedproject. Follow us on Pinterest and pin ideas to use in your classroom, Pinterest.com/NeedProject.