Knowledge management Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak

Report
สัมมนาการจัดการความรู ้ 1
ATKM 791
Today’s Contents
 Knowledge
 Knowledge management
 Knowledge management process
 Knowledge management Technologies
 KMS
Knowledge
 Information effective in action, information focused on
results. (Drucker. P. , 1994)
 “Knowledge is a value asset”
 Knowledge is the only meaningful resource today. The
traditional factors of production- land, labor, capital have
not disappeared but they are secondary (Drucker. P. ,
1993: post capitalist society)
Knowledge
 Knowledge is the beliefs that guide organizational
action
(Nonaka. 1994)
 “A dynamic human process of justifying personal belief
toward the ‘truth’ ”. - SECI
 Two kinds of knowledge – Explicit knowledge and tacit
knowledge
(Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T. , 2001 )
Knowledge
 From a systems-engineering point of view ‘ knowledge is
an in formation about information’
 (Schreiber et al., 2000)
 “Knowledge enables the user of information to make
decision or learn something from the information , which
has bee presented ” (Rhem.A.J., 2006 )
 Information in context to produce an actionable
understanding. (Rumizen.M.C.,2002)
Data Information Knowledge
Data
Information
Knowledge
Data Information Knowledge
Data
Information
Knowledge
ข้อเท็จจริงทีย
่ ังไม่ได้กลน
่ ั กรอง
ข้อมูลทีเ่ กิดจากการวิเคราะห์ กลน
่ ั กรอง
ประสบการณ์จริง ทีเ่ กิดจากการได้ลงมือ
ื่ ทีไ่ ด้ร ับการพิสจ
ปฏิบ ัติ เป็นความเชอ
ู น์
แล้วโดยการทดลองทาแล้ว และจะย ังคง
ื่ ตราบเท่าทีย
เชอ
่ ังคิดว่าย ังใชไ้ ด้จริง
Data Information Knowledge
Data
Information
Knowledge
Source: Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak
Data Information Knowledge
A restaurant sales order including two large
burgers and two medium-sized vanilla milkshakes
The numbers indicating daily sales (in dollars, quantity, or
percentage of sales ) of burgers and milkshakes . The
manager can use this information to make decision s
concerning prices and raw material.
The daily sales of burgers can be used, along with other
information (e.g. quantity of bread in inventory), to compute the
amount of bread to buy. The relationship between the quantity of
bread that should be ordered , the bread in inventory and the
bread sold daily is the knowledge.
Understanding this relationship is knowledge.
Data, information และ
knowledge
ในบริบทของนักศึกษาแต่ละคน
Color card
Why knowledge management?
Knowledge management
KM is an area in business administration that
deal with how to leverage knowledge as a key
asset and resource in modern organizations.
Source: Schreiber et al., 2000. Knowledge engineering and management
Knowledge management
1. Make an organization's knowledge store more accessible
and useful
2. A business activity with two primary aspects
• Treating business component of business activities
as an explicit concern of strategy, policy, practice at
all levels of organizations
• Making direct connection between organization's
intellectual assets - explicit and tacit and positive
business results
3. Conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the
right people at the right time and helping to share and put
information into action to improve organization’s
performance
Knowledge management
Knowledge management should be a
dynamic management of the process of creating
knowledge out of knowledge, not a static
management of information or exist knowledge.
(Nonaka. I. and Nishiguchi. T. , 2001 )
Knowledge management
C – MAP : Knowledge management
Dr. Nopasit Chakpitak
Knowledge management
• Simply be defined as ‘ doing what is needed
to get the most out of knowledge resources.
• Can be applied to individuals , but attracted
the attention of organization.
Is knowledge management for every body?
Case study: John Smith ( Fernandez. I.B. et
al.2004.p6)
Discussion
Source: Fernandez. I.B. et al.2004.p6
Force driving knowledge management
KM is important for organizations because:
Decision makers face pressure to make better
and faster decisions in a high domain
complexity and market volatility
Even
though
Decision makers may in fact lack of
experience and the out come of decisions
could have a considerable impact on the
organization
Knowledge management process
 Knowledge discovery
 Knowledge capture
 Knowledge sharing
 Knowledge application
Knowledge management process
Discovery
• Combination
• Socialization
Sharing
• Socialization
• Exchange
Capture
• Externalization
• Internalization
Application
• Direction
• Routines
Knowledge management process
Knowledge Discovery : the development of
new tacit or explicit knowledge from data and
information or from the synthesis of prior knowledge
• Combination – discovery the new explicit knowledge
More complex or new explicit knowledge are created
from multiple body of explicit knowledge through
communication, integration and systemization – Proposal
writing.
• Socialization - discovery the new tacit knowledge
The synthesis tacit knowledge across individual
through joint activities instead of written or verbal
instruction
Knowledge management process
Knowledge capture : the process of
retrieving either tacit or explicit knowledge that
resides with in people, artifacts, or
organizational entities
• Externalization – convert tacit knowledge to be explicit
knowledge. Ex: consultant writing a document describe the
lessons the team has learned about client company.
• Internalization - convert explicit knowledge to be tacit
knowledge. Ex: new software consultant reads a book on
innovative software development and learn from it.
Knowledge management process
Knowledge sharing : the process of tacit
or explicit knowledge are shared to individuals.
• Socialization: sharing of tacit knowledge
• Exchange: sharing of explicit knowledge
Knowledge management process
Knowledge sharing : the process of tacit
or explicit knowledge are shared to individuals.
1. Effective transfer: to understand well enough
to act on it or having ability to take action
based on it.
2. Share knowledge not recommendation based
on knowledge – utilization of knowledge
3. Knowledge sharing take place across
individual, groups, department, organization.
Knowledge management process
 Knowledge application: The knowledge is used to
guide decisions and actions.
 Knowledge contributes most org. performance
when it is used to make decision and perform task
 Direction : individual processing knowledge direct
the action of another without transferring.
 Routines: utilization of knowledge embedded in
procedure, rules, and norms that guide future
behavior.
SECI Model
Discovery
Tacit
Internalization
Combination
Explicit
Explicit
Tacit
Externalization
Explicit
Socialization
Capture
Explicit
Tacit
Tacit
Knowledge management mechanism
 Organizational means used to promote KM
 Supported by KM infrastructure
 May or may not utilize technology
 Learning by doing, on the job training, face to face
meeting …
Knowledge management mechanism
Knowledge management mechanism
:case study
Discussion
Knowledge management Technologies
Today, knowledge is accumulated at an ever
increase rate…….estimated that it is
currently doubling every 18months
How does IT support KM?
Knowledge management Technologies
 technology represents a highly visible and tangible solution.
 argument: a successful KM implementation does not rest on
the deployment of a technology solution alone.
 research has revealed that the greatest difficulty in KM is
‘‘changing people’s behavior,’’ and the current biggest
impediment to knowledge transfer is ‘‘culture’’.
 the key is: to understand how technology is most
appropriately deployed and aligned to the knowledge
activities in the organization.
Source: (Davenport & Prusak, 1999; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Anand, Manz, & Glick, 1998).
Knowledge management Systems
KM systems utilize variety of KM
mechanism and technology to
support KM process
KMS helps
 to solve problems of individuals
 provides a medium to foster discourses
between people with different perspectives.
The benefits of Knowledge systems?
Category
Benefit
Anticipated
benefit
Perceived as
actual benefit
Productivity
Faster decision –making
Increase productivity
Enhanced problem solving
Solve complex problems
Reliability
Equipment operation
Reduce downtime
75
68
Knowledge
preservation
Capture scarce expertise
Use in remote locations
10
14
Quality
Increase quality of decisions
improvement Dealing with uncertainty
29
18
Training
Education benefits
15
13
Job
enrichment
Flexibility
Integrating knowledge of several experts
10
15
The number represent frequency, number of time and items
Source: Martin. et al. (1996) sited in Schreiber et al., 2000. Knowledge engineering and management
The benefits of Knowledge systems?
Top three degrees of anticipate benefits
1. Faster decision making
2. Increase productivity
3. Increase quality of decision making
Source: Martin. et al. (1996) sited in Schreiber et al., 2000. Knowledge engineering and management
ระบบสารสนเทศในสานักงาน
ฐานข้อมูล
ของหน่วยงาน
ฐานข้อมูล
จากภายนอก
DSS
ธุรกรรม
TPS
ฐานข้อมูล
ของธุรกรรม
ทีถ่ กู ต้อง
ฐานข้อมูล
การปฏิบตั งิ าน
ทีม่ า:ปรับปรุงจาก Stair & Reynolds.(1999:391).
MIS
ฐานข้อมูลของ
แอพพลิเคชัน
EIS
GDSS
รายงาน
33
ิ ใจ DSS
ระบบสนับสนุนการตัดสน
ข ้อมูลจากภายใน
และภายนอก
องค์การ
สว่ นจัดการ
โต ้ตอบ
Dialog
management
ระบบย่อยการ
จัดการองค์ความู ้
knowledge based
management
สว่ นจัดการข ้อมูล
Data
management
สว่ นจัดการโมเดล
Model
management
ฐานแบบจาลอง
ิ ใจ DSS
ระบบสนั บสนุนการตัดสน
รู ้จักระบบ: สว่ นประกอบ: สว่ นจัดการองค์ความรู ้: Knowledge – based subsystem
ทาไมต ้องมีสว่ นจัดการองค์ความรู ้
• ปั ญหากึง่ โครงสร ้าง และไม่มโี ครงสร ้าง มักมี
ั ซอน
้ ต ้องการความเชย
ี่ วชาญในการ
ความซบ
ี่ วชาญและผู ้รู ้ต่างๆ
แก ้ปั ญหา ซงึ่ หาได ้จากผู ้เชย
ซงึ่ สามารถจัดเก็บไว ้ได ้ในระบบสารสนเทศ
• DSS ขัน
้ สูง จึงมีสว่ นทีเ่ รียกว่าสว่ นจัดการองค์
ั
ความรู ้ เพิม
่ ขึน
้ มา เพือ
่ ชว่ ยแก ้ปั ญหาทีต
่ ้องอาศย
ี่ วชาญ
ความรู ้และความเชย
Next: submit Assignment 1
1. What is the difference between information
systems in general and KMS?
2. What is the difference between KMS and
specialized systems like organizational memory
systems, knowledge based systems etc.?
3. Are there any general requirements, a KMS
should fulfill?
4. Is it possible to provide a KMS with a generic
body of knowledge that can be used in (almost)
any company?
Submit3 selected KMS Cases

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