European Exploration and Colonization (European Empires) Essential Question: Why was exploration and colonization important in the development of Europe and the world? SS6b: Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, and France in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Words to Know Empire: group of territories or nations under a single ruler or government Imperialism: the practice of a larger country growing stronger by taking over smaller countries that have important natural resources. Words to Know Colonize: to send a group of settlers of a nation to establish political control over the land and the indigenous (native) people of that area Movie: Avatar How many of you have seen this movie? How is it an example of exploration and colonization? Empire building • After the 14th century, Europe’s most powerful countries competed to see who could get the most colonies (colony). • They wanted to build their Empire by taking over other parts of the world (Imperialism). Remember Spices and Goods from Asia??? How did the Europeans know about the spices and goods in Asia? The Crusades (1096-1272) Military expeditions sent by the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church to capture the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslim Turks. Not successful, but had a few positive results Western Europeans learned to: Create better maps Build better ships Exposed Europeans to spices & goods from Asia Travels of Marco Polo Trade Routes to Asia 1400’s—major trade routes from Asia to Europe went Through 2 Italian cities (Venice and Genoa) Italian merchants marked up the prices on the jewels, fragrances, woods and finished goods & sold them throughout Europe. Portugal, Spain, France, and England Resented the huge profits made by Italians. Since the Italians controlled the trade routes Through the Mediterranean Sea they began to look for other routes to Asia and the Spice Islands—water route to Asia! Spain and Portugal: Treaty of Tordesillas Portugal and Spain claimed territories in the New World before any other European powers. Since both nations were Catholic, the Pope drew a line on the map showing which territories would belong to Portugal and which ones belonged to Spain Who is going to get most of the New World? Portugal Leads the Way! Established the earliest of the modern European colonial empires. Prince Henry the Navigator • school of navigation • sent more than 50 expeditions down the west coast of Africa Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tip of Africa called The Cape of Good Hope and the Indian Ocean Vasco da Gama and other Explorers, later sailed around the cape and continued to India Portugal Leads the Way! For decades, the Portuguese continued to explore east Asia where they established forts & trading posts. By 1571, a string of outposts connected Portugal to Africa, India, South Pacific Islands, and Japan Portugal grew wealthy from these trade routes, but… Its most profitable colony was Brazil in South America. Brazil was a Portuguese colony until 1822. Use the European Empires Student Map to record the different routes Portugal’s Explorations: Color the route of the Portuguese Empire of Portugal: color the land area and complete the key Spain’s Empire Spanish explorers were searching for a trade route through or around North & South America to Asia Wanted to find a quicker route to the gold & spices in Asia Christopher Columbus (Italian) given $ by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain …find a quick route to through the Atlantic to Asia. He discovers the Bahamas, but thought he was in Asia… called the land “West Indies”. Found 2 new continents. Exploration of these areas brought great wealth to Spain. Spain’s Empire Huge empire that spanned the globe Spanish conquistadors conquered the Inca and Aztec civilizations in the 1500s (South America) --Looking for gold & spices --Used missionaries to convert natives to Christianity Claimed huge areas of North & South America & ruled over them for 300 years Spain’s Explorations: Color the route of the Spanish Empire of Spain: color the land area and complete the key England’s Empire England used to be one of three countries (England, Scotland, & Wales) 1700s, the three united and became Great Britain British empire was the largest in history --At its peak, Great Britain controlled: Canada, Australia, India, much of Africa, and numerous islands England’s Empire North America came under British control in the 1700s --Lost American colonies in 1776 --Maintained control over Canada until 20th century • Colonized Australia in 1788 --used it as a penal (prison) colony to relieve over crowed jails in England England’s Explorations: Color the route of the English British Empire: color in the lard area and complete the key France’s Empire Established other colonies in the 16th-17th centuries: --Islands in the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, & the North Atlantic France also maintained influence in Canada, South America, Southeast Asia, & Northwest Africa Many French explorers were searching for the Northwest Passage. Founded Quebec, the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Established fur trading posts in the New World. France’s Explorations: Color the route of the French Empire of France: color the land area and complete the key Remember Definition of an Empire? Empire: group of territories or nations under a single ruler or government Can you think of an Empire? Star Wars (Galactic Empire) Star Trek (Romulan Empire) Roman Empire The countries of Portugal, Spain, England, and France led the exploration and colonization movement and built individual empires across the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Australia. European Empires Map Activity Turn your maps over to the other side. Record the different empires on your map.