JOHN PROCTOR QUOTES John Proctor Act 1 To who? Miller’s notes “he is a sinner not only against the moral fashion of the time but against his own vision of decent conduct” “respected and feared in Salem” Relevance Guilt and sense of self has worn away at John More reasons why he is determined later not to be revealed as fraud as he wants to keep his reputation. the town’s mumbling witchcraft 1 Abigail you’re wicked yet aren’t you!” 1 Abigail Did you consult the wardens before you called this minister to look for devils? 1 Parris he may turn his head but not to hell! 1 there are many others stay away from church these days because you hardly ever mention God any more *Why then I must find and it join it *I mean it solemnly, Rebecca, I like not the smell of this authority 1 Putnam (about Parris being determined to look for wickedness in the situation rather than something more benign) Parris 1 Rebecca Rumours already starting and building of hysteria. Shows it does not take much in this town for people to create stories out of and how fast these things happen. Flirting and shows he thinks he knows her well but also shows he does not realise what she is capable of as he thinks he can flirt and not have any consequences Hysteria Evidence the community had democratic principles for some community decisions but this one has not been discussed and the hysteria is being encouraged by the powers that be (Parris) without them realising it Power of religion and use religious language/references Religious reference and shows how important it was to keep God at the forefront of the decisions they made Religion and Parris’ misuse of it which had stopped some in the community doing what was expected of them. Shows cracks in the community which were easily broken open by the tension the witchcraft brought Characterisation –John is strong enough to stand up publicly for his views (ironically though not strong enough to do the same with his weaknesses later in Act 4 when he is told his name will be pinned to the church door) Power of religion – Parris is misusing his power as God’s voice in the community and some are against this while others support him because they believe they must as is the law and the tradition in their church. individual against authority. John Proctor I never see such a load of flowers on the earth woman, I’ll not have your suspicion anymore”/”You will not judge me more….every moment judged for lies It tells me that a minister may pray to God without he have golden candlesticks upon the altar. I see no light of God in that man Act 2 To who? Elizabeth Relevance Characterisation – able to be romantic and sees the beauty in the world around him Characterisation – firm and demanding with his wife, shows another side. Also gives us some background to the relationship – there has obviously been suspicion left over even though Abigail left months before 2 Elizabeth 2 Hale Accusing Parris to Hale of putting status and wealth above his ministry to God. Shows the rivalries and tensions in the community. 2 Hale There be no love for Satan in this house, Sir 2 Hale And why not if they must hang for denyin’ it? 2 Hale “but the proof, the proof! 2 Mary Warren “were I a stone, I would have cracked for shame this seven month” 2 Elizabeth Reference to God and the importance for John that his minister is not just given the status but must earn it. Shows what he and others thought of Parris. individual against authority. Reference to religion – deep belief in Satan as a real entity that could take over people’s souls Crucial for the plot as the confessions of innocent people are what keeps others believing in the existence of the devil in Salem. Pointing out the obvious responses that people have to be being accused – he sees the human failings in the behaviour which the audience would also see but Hale and others involved can only see witches and innocent people and nothing in between. Another example of the truth and so the end of the witch hunt being set aside in favour of what people want to see. Hysteria The essence of the problem – there is no proof as a reasonable person would see it and yet all these people have been condemned anyway and this continues throughout the play Characterisation – guilt Is the accuser always holy now? Vengeance is walking Salem…now the little children are jangling the keys of the kingdom and common vengeance writes the law! 2 Hale Vengeance and community breakdown. Religious references and also very strong imagery to help us visualise the situation the town is in. Hysteria starting with John here. individual against authority. John Proctor My wife will not die for me…that goodness will not die for me! That woman will never lie Whore! Whore! Act 2 To who? Mary Relevance Characterisation, determined not to lose Elizabeth and especially because of something he has done i.e. the affair with Abigail. Key moment for his future as later in the play she does lie to save him - ironic Key moment as he reveals he “has known” Abigail which leads to Abigail take a risk and intimidate Danforth to try to avoid having to answer to the accusation and not long after she starts the hysteria again among the girls which includes Mary is accused and who then accuses John and so he is imprisoned. A man’s name – highlights how important this is to him and the risk he takes telling them all about the affair. Characterisation – standing up for what he believes must be told Even Elizabeth knows how important it was too keep his name clear of any blemish – and she lies to do so. 3 Danforth 3 Abigail A man will not cast away his good name. You surely know that 3 Giles “she only thought to save my name” 3 Danforth A fire, a fire is burning!...and as you quail now when you know in all your black hearts that this be fraud – God damns our kind especially… “God does not need my name nailed upon the church! God knows how black my sins are!” 3 Danforth Direct reference to a crucible Highlights that those who wait until it is too late or are too afraid to speak the truth will be damned more than others for their cowardice. Also hysteria at the end of the act. individual against authority. 4 Danforth Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! For I do think I see some shred of goodness in John Proctor 4 Danforth “A Man’s Name” “Power of Religion” Makes a mockery of the trials as he points out that making his name public will not make God forgive him – he knows that by doing this Danforth will have more weight to use to make others confess but John does not want to be used in this way and does not want his family to be shamed by having it revealed so publicly. He suggests he has a private relationship with God but the community is very much built upon a public relationship with God. A man’s name – gives his reasons why he cannot have his name written down and highlights the importance of a name and it’s link to a person’s sense of identity 4 Everyone present particularly Elizabeth A man’s name and characterisation. He sees some redemption and hope in knows he is doing what reflects his true self and his values. ELIZABETH PROCTOR QUOTES Elizabeth Proctor “it hurt my heart to strip her” Act 2 To who? John Relevance Characterisation: gentle, kind, but a woman of her time Blushing with pleasure 2 John She doesn’t want friction 2 John Characterisation Miller’s directions show she responds when J flatters her and wants to please him. It matters to her.. Characterisation Miller’s stage directions reinforce her gentle, non confrontational character “frightened all my strength away” 2 John Characterisation Weakness in health and cannot bring herself to be confrontational with Mary Warren “if it were not Abigail that you must go to hurt, would you falter now. I think not” The Deputy Governor promise hangin’ if they’ll not confess, John. The town’s gone wild, I think.” “ She speak of Abigail and I thought she were a saint, to hear her. Abigail brings the other girls into court and where she walks the crowd will part like the sea of Israel. And folk are brought before them and if they scream and howl and fall to the floor – the person’s clapped in the jail for bewitchin’ them. 2 John Characterisation Strength of character and wisdom about the situation. She understands her husband. 2 John Hysteria – describes how she and other more sensible people view the situation but also the fear she has that it has got out of hand. Explains the unfairness of the court’s justice. 2 John Explains how the hysteria is being controlled by Abigail and the girls and how the community is hooked into their hysteria. She uses religious references which highlights this is how they relate to the world around them - by referring to the bible and the cultural/religious life they live. Highlights how the hysteria is working to bring innocent people to jail and hanging. 2 John Characterisation Fair, non judgemental, wise and honest. Good morals, true to her faith. “ she wants me dead. I knew all week it would come to this…” 2 John Characterisation Fear, plot development, wisdom about the situation. “there be no mark of blame upon my life, Mr Hale. I am a covenanted Christian woman.” 2 Hale Characterisation Honest, truthful,. Ironic when compared to John and Abigail. individual against authority. “ I do not judge you” Elizabeth Proctor “if you think that I am one, then I say there are none” “Question Abigail Williams about the gospel, not myself” Act 2 To who? Hale 2 Hale “and what of tomorrow? She will cry me out until they take me down!” “ I cannot think the Devil may own a woman’s soul, Mr Hale, when she keeps an upright way as I have” 2 John 2 Hale “They’ve surely gone wild, now, Mr Hale!” “My husband is a good and righteous man” “ I think that be the devil’s argument”/ “I cannot dispute with you, sir; I lack the learning for it.” “for if he denied the charge they’d hang him surely and auction out his property” “I counted myself so plain, so poorly made, no honest love could come to me! Suspicion kissed you when I did..” “He have his goodness now. God forbid I take it from him” 2 Hale 3 Danforth 4 Hale/Danforth 4 John 4 John 4 Hale Relevance Disbelief in witches and shows the belief among those who distrust the witch hunt as innocent people are being accused. Characterisation Strong when standing up for herself. Angry that she is being accused when it is the principal accuser who has started all this and is corrupted and guilty. Stronger side to her, standing up to the accusations. Characterisation Wise to the way things are going – sees the situation for what it is while John tries to avoid the reality. Characterisation; standing up to authority to defend herself;; going against the thoughts of the time that the devil can take any soul – even a good woman. This in itself would make people doubt her faith if she claims not to believe in witches. Shows the ridiculousness of the situation that innocent people are targeted. Hysteria, reasonable people can see it but the authority and community cannot. Characterisation The good in John, she is honest and loyal - trying to stand by her husband Characterisation Shows clarity of thought even under pressure. Humble but sure of herself and her beliefs. Plot development . About Giles – explains why being condemned would leave families destitute and why some were accusing others – to get their land. Characterisation Humility, self esteem was low, self awareness, apologising. Shows depth and strength of character to be able to reflect. Having reflected on her life and the way things were she has changed and has seen that she could have behaved differently. Last line in the play – highlights a sad but strong and noble ending to John’s life. HOW WOULD YOU END THE PLAY???? HALE QUOTES Hale Hale We cannot look to superstition in this. The Devil is precise.. Act 1 1 To who? Have no fear nowwe shall find him out if he has come among us 1 Those gathered in Parris’ house Have you sold yourself to Lucifer? You are God’s insrtrument put in our hands to discover the devil’s agents among us… Glory to God! It is broken! They are free! 1 Abigail 1 Tituba 1 All present “Theology, sir, is a fortress; no crack in a fortress may be accounted small.” 2 John “Believe me, Mr Nurse, if Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothing’s left to stop the whole green world from burning” “These are new times, sir. There is a misty plot afoot so subtle we should be criminal to cling to old respects and ancient friendships.” 2 Giles 2 Giles (with rising exaltation)You are God’s instrument put in our hands to discover the Devil’s agent’s among us…face God, Tituba, and God will protect you. 1 Tituba Putnam Relevance Read Miller’s notes on Hale Power of religion Highlights how they had very clear markers to look for the devil and how seriously they took the reality of the devil. Also shows that he is willing, at the start at least, to be careful in any accusations he makes. Power of religion Shows determination at that time to find the devil and their belief that with their faith in God they can do this. Religious language. Acceptance that this is a real possibility. Religious language that becomes quite hysterical. He rarely does anything to calm a situation! Hysteria as he says this because the girls are all starting to accuse people. He is happy about this but it is ironic as it starts the tragedy that will unfold. Key moment He must pursue all doubt to ensure he has done his job thoroughly – no weakness in a person’s record or faith will be tolerated and no mistakes let to pass. It was hard to be a flawed person in this community and all flaws were for the community to comment and pass judgement on. If a flaw could be seen to be going against the faith then it could be said to be a mark of the devil… Hysteria, innocents being named and accused; Hale starts to recognise the intensity of it all but fails to see the flaws in the accusations. Example of abuse of power/authority encouraging people to turn against their friends and neighbours to find the devil. Encouraging the hysteria and fear about the devil being everywhere – especially where you least expect it. People were, essentially, given permission by the authority to blame and accuse others all in the name of finding the devil but this was taken advantage of and people took revenge and spite out on those they wanted to get rid of or wanted something from. Hidden jealousies or rivalries came to the fore and were pursued under the auspices of the witch hunt. Hysteria – the religious language and intense demand for Tituba to “face God” fuels the hysteria and shows the community that Hale believes in that Tituba has been with the Devil and that admitting it will save her soul– his authority and knowledge of these matters means the community will be easily led by whatever he believes and so he, unwittingly, fuels the already poisoned accusations of innocent people. Hale The Devil is out and preying on her like a beast upon the flesh of the pure lamb. Act 1 To? Tituba This is a strange time, Mister. No man may longer doubt the powers of the dark are gathered in monstrous attack upon this village. 2 Proctors Theology, sir, is a fortress; no crack in a fortress may be accounted small. 2 John Proctor …if Rebecca Nurse be tainted then there’s nothing left to stop the whole green world from burning. 2 Frances Nurse There is a misty plot afoot so subtle we should be criminal to cling to old respects and ancient friendships. …the Devil is alive in Salem and we dare not quail to follow where the accusing finger points. …the world goes mad and it profit nothing you should lay the cause to the vengeance of a little girl…. I cannot think God be provoked so grandly by such a cause” 2 Frances Nurse 2 John Relevance Hysteria – the religious language makes the moment seem even more intense and gives the process of accusing people more credibility. It also fuels the hysteria as this kind of language can be used to whip up religious fervour. The image of the devil feasting on a lamb is very biblical and the community listening in the room would be able to relate to it very closely. It is also a very emotional image which helps to make the moment more intense. Characterisation, hysteria and fear. Hale often uses very highbrow and educated language which gives him a sense of intellectual superiority over others. He uses it to express himself when confident and sure of himself. When he becomes less sure and more emotional later in the play he uses language much more like the “common man”. This quote shows us how sure he is about the evil and how powerful this evil is – this attitude will fuel the hysteria and the fear that the community have about the devil and his power. People had strong belief in their authority figures and he had a lot of power to influence others because of his status. Power of religion. Any weakness in any person’s religious commitment could be considered an issue by others – there was no flexibility in what you could and could not believe. A weakness (like John not going to church regularly or not baptising his child) would be considered a sign of turning away from God…and towards the other side i.e. the devil. Highlights the fear he and others felt when they heard this news as if the best of people in the community are being accused of being with the devil then they are all at risk. Characterisation – shows he has taken the time to find out about the people in the community. He recognises a good person when he sees one. He is warning them that the devil could be hiding anywhere and so friendships may need to be abandoned to find him. By saying this he, unwittingly, encourages the community to turn against itself with people taking revenge on each other because of jealousy or greed. This helps to fuel the hysteria which some use for their own ends. Hale only wants to do good but often makes things worse. Shows that he really believes in the existence of the devil and that God has a hand in it all – that none of it could have been made up by a “little girl” – because she is a young girl they cannot believe that she is capable of such evil as they had such low status in the community and were not paid much attention to….before this! Hale …think on your village and what may have drawn from heaven such thundering wrath upon you all. I pray God open up our eyes. *Pray be calm a moment, sir *A moment, sir, a moment *I think you must hear the girl, sir. *I cannot think you may judge the man on such evidence. Act 2 To Who? Giles and Frances Relevance He blames some badness in the village for God to have abandoned them to the devil like this – he cannot see any other logical or reasonable reason for a community to turn against it’s own in the way people are accusing each other in Salem. He uses very religious and powerful language when he talks about God. 3 To Giles and then to Danforth Throughout Act 3, Hale tries to bring some reason and fairness to the proceedings which shows his characterisation as he is starting to realise that it is all more complicated than Danforth and Parris etc want it to be. This eventually leads him to walk out of the court at the end. Is every defence an attack upon the court? But it does not follow that everyone accused is part of it. 3 Parris 3 Danforth ,…I dare not take a life without there be a proof so immaculate no slightest qualm of conscience may doubt it. 3 Danforth It is a natural lie to tell! I beg you stop now before another is condemned. 3 Danforth Seeing the lack of fairness or willingness for the judges and Parris to be more humane and reasonable in their way of dealing with the situation. Increasingly trying to get Danforth to open his eyes and mind to the possibility that some people may be innocent even though they have been accused. Trying to lessen the hysteria. Characterisation and connection with an audience. An audience would want him to manage to do this and would be very much on his side in this Act as they see him develop more of an awareness of what is going on and see him trapped by what he has been taught to believe and have faith in – God and the courts – and what he actually sees. individual against authority. He is beginning to show here that he is unsure about the people who have been accused so far and that he cannot go on unless they have absolute proof – BUT, how can there be without evidence of the devil? The fact Rebecca Nurse has been accused and will hang (he has just signed her death warrant) makes him question the accusations and the motivation of the accusers and the court. individual against authority. Characterisation – he understands why a wife would lie for her husband and is developing more and more of a conscience about the proceedings. “I may shut my conscience to it no more – private vengeance is working through this testimony!” I believe him – this girl has always struck me false… 3 Danforth He is open about the corruptness (abuse of power) of the court and the fact that Abigail is abusing her POWER and the HYSTERIA to take revenge on Elizabeth and on John. He is standing up to the court and so is taking a stand – the individual against authority. 3 Danforth Finally he is going with his instinct - individual against authority but as soon as he says this Abigail starts to scream (a weird, wild chilling cry) and whips up the hysteria again seeing the bird. Hale *You cannot believe them! *I see nothing your honour! *Excellency, this child’s gone wild! I denounce these proceedings, I quit this court! Act 3 To Who? Danforth 3 Danforth There are orphans wandering from house to house; abandoned cattle bellow on the highroads; the stink of rotting crops hangs everywhere and no man knows when the harlot’s cry will end his life – and you wonder yet if rebellion’s spoke? I come to do the Devil’s work. I come to counsel Christians they should belie themselves. 4 Danforth 4 Danforth I have gone this three month like our Lord into the wilderness. I have sought a Christian way, for damnation’s doubled on a minister who counsel’s men to lie. 4 Elizabeth Proctor It is a lie! They are innocent! 4 Danforth I would save your husband’s life, for if he is taken I count myself his murderer. 4 Elizabeth Relevance He is trying to stand up against the mass hysteria the girls are creating and that Danforth and the others are being swept along in but to no avail. He is seen to be trying to bring some semblance of reason and focus to the proceedings but the whole court now believes the accusations and the presence of the devil. Characterisation Finally he stands up for what he knows is the truth. Individual against authority. His final lines in this Act add to the hysteria as he shouts this after Proctor and the girls have also been shouting and bringing the Act to a climax. Characterisation. Standing up to Danforth and being much more honest and forthright than before. Individual against authority. We get a good idea here of the impact that the witch hunt has had on the community and the fear that there is that anyone could be accused at any time. Characterisation. Ironic as he is going against all he said he believed in at the start of the play. He is more human and knows he is more fallible now – there is no rule book to guide him now that he can see how cruel and vindictive people can be in their accusations. He just wants people to live and believes that God wants that too so he will do anything to help achieve that even though it means persuading innocent Christians that God will forgive them for lying about being involved with the Devil. Using religious imagery and language to help make him sound more sincere and to show the intensity of his feelings. He speaks the truth plainly and he should know as he is telling people to lie to save themselves but Danforth refuses to accept this and will not back down. A missed opportunity for Danforth to stop the hangings. He feels deep guilt for his part in the witch hunt and to save John’s life means he can save another person’s soul. Hale Beware Goody Proctor, cleave to no faith when faith brings blood. It is a mistaken law that leads to sacrifice. Life, woman, life is God’s most precious gift…it may well be God damns a liar less than he that throws his life away for pride. Man! You will hang! You cannot! Act 4 To who? Elizabeth Relevance Shows his depth of change towards his faith and towards the law – if your faith leads you to kill innocent people then it cannot be a true or good faith. 4 Elizabeth Explaining that God may see John’s pride as more of a sin that lying to save his life. 4 John What profits him to bleed? Shall the dust praise him? Shall the worms declare his truth? 4 Elizabeth Horrified at John’s decision to be hung. Hale’s guilt will never leave him now. Contributing to the hysterical end of the play as he shouts. Desperately trying to get Elizabeth to change his mind – he does not understand how important it is for John to leave an honest legacy for his name and for his children. His panic and horror contribute to the climactic end of the play. PARRIS QUOTES Parris Go directly home and speak nothing of unnatural causes Act 1 To who? Susanna Relevance Fear of the possibility that it may be “unnatural” and fear that his name and reputation will be tainted Abigail, do you understand that I have many enemies? There is a faction that is sworn to drive me from my pulpit 1 Abigail His reputation matters to him and he knows that his “enemies” (i.e. those in the community who do not like his way, his manner or his arrogance) will take full advantage of anything negative about him. This sets the scene for the audience to know that there is a divide in the community already. I pray you leap not to witchcraft …they will howl me out of Salem for such corruption in my house. 1 Mr Putnam Fear of the vengeance of his enemies and of the accusation of witch craft. I do not preach for children, Rebecca. It is not the children who are unmindful of their obligations towards this ministry. 1 Rebecca Ironic since it is the children who start and continue the accusations! I am not some preaching farmer..:I am a graduate of Harvard College. 1 John Proctor Characterisation. Arrogance and hubris – he sees his academic success as the only skill he needs to be a minister of God – the compassion and love that some in the community (Rebecca, John, Giles all represent these people) look for in their minister is not evident in anything Parris does. Why am I persecuted here? …I have often wondered if the Devil be in it somewhere 1 Proctor, Giles Blames the existence of the devil in the community for the fact he is not welcomed in Salem as he would like – shows that the Devil was blamed for a lot of things they could not understand. Since they could not actually see the devil himself but instead he would be found in people who had apparently “trafficked” with him so they then would be blamed …and so the laws and justice was meted out even before the witch hunt. Parris Act To who? Relevance There is either obedience or the church will burn like Hell is burning! 1 Proctor, Giles KEY quote to explain the reasons why people stuck to the theology and the laws – the fear that if they did not their communities would break down, God would abandon them and the devil would take over. This is what their leaders told them would happen and it was important in those uncertain times to keep a sense of a strong community – but people like John (and even Abigail in her way) were questioning these laws and rules. How can it be the devil? Why would he choose my house to strike? 1 Hale He/they think the devil would only communicate with the obviously “bad”. Fear of the devil and the unknown. You will confess yourself or I will take you out and whip you to your death, Tituba! 1 Tituba Violent and aggressive – fearful and stoking the flames of the fear and the beginnings of the hysteria. Also, who would not confess if they thought they would be whipped to death anyway? But the authority figures never see this human aspect to the accusations. Who? Who? Their names, their names! 1 Tituba Fueling the accusations and hysteria – getting the names is key for the blame to be placed and for Parris to feel he can be distanced from the accusations. Throughout the play, Parris and other authority figures often fuel the very hysteria that fuels the accusations of innocent people thereby destroying the community they claim to want to save from the devil! Such a Christian that will not come to church but once in a month! 3 Danforth about Proctor Accusing Proctor of being unChristian – he sees Proctor as an enemy and would like to see him “undone” and humiliated in public. So, even the authority figures are taking their revenge on those they dislike or distrust without thought to the consequences. Parris Act To who? Relevance All innocent and Christian people are happy for the courts in Salem! These people are gloomy for it. 3 Danforth Highlighting the fact that if people questioned any of the court proceedings they would be accused of being unChristian and so possibly in league with the devil or with those who have been accused – reminiscent of George W Bush’s statement about terrorism “you are either with us or against us” which leads to very simplistic, extreme and often unjust laws. The Devil lives on such confidences! 3 Danforth Using the name of the Devil (and sometimes he uses the name Satan) gives his point more power and intensity and means it can be ignored less easily as no one can be seen to be ignoring any accusations that the Devil be involved. The use of religious language throughout the play is used to give power and intensity to the lines so that the characters speaking it or listening to it gain more control or influence in the scene. I never saw any of them naked 3 Danforth Characterisation and abuse of power. A lie as he tells Abi in Act 1 that he thought he saw someone naked running through the trees. Desperate to keep any blame away from himself. Abi knows he is lying - she would only do herself damage if she tells them this. People are protecting themselves now no matter what the real truth is. Cast theDevil out! Look him in the face! Trample him! We’ll save you, Mary, only stand fast against him Parris There be a faction here, feeding on that news, and I tell you true, sir, I fear there will be a riot here. 3 Mary Warren Act 4 To who? Danforth Religious language to inspire Mary and persuade her that God is on her side – the ultimate thing they all want. Relevance Individual against authority. Parris is realising that he has been duped by his niece, Abigail – now he is trying to redeem himself in some way by trying to stop the trials. If he (Hale) brings even one of these to God, that confession surely damns the others in the public eye, and none may doubt more that they are linked to Hell 4 Danforth Highlights the fact that the authorities now know that they need to find a way out of the situation without losing credibility – their power and abuse of it has gone too far It will strike the village that Proctor confess. Let him sign it, let him sign it. 4 Danforth Using Proctor to get what they want i.e. an end to the trials. Desperate – starts the hysteria leading up to Proctor refusing to sign his confession ABIGAIL QUOTES Abigail Act To who? Relevance a bitter woman, a lying cold, snivelling woman 1 John Proctor Characterisation very nasty and mean in her description – talking out of turn for a girl her age in that community. Starts to show her darker side. a gossiping liar! 1 John Characterisation no blush about my name 1 Parris Characterisation Lying to save herself; “dissembling” to appear innocent; in direct contrast with Elizabeth Oh we’ll be whipped! 1 Mary Characterisation the darker side is clear here. No way will she take the full blame even if she did instigate the calling of the spirits etc. Let either of you breathe a word, or the edge of a word, about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night and I will bring a pointy reckoning that will shudder you. 1 Mary and Mercy Characterisation and use of powerful imagery in her language to create more intensity and fear. oh she’s only gone silly somehow 1 John Explicitly says that Betty is not witched and yet as the play unfolds she uses the witchcraft rumours and hysteria for her own ends I have a sense for heat, John, and yours has drawn me to your window and I have seen you looking up, burning in your loneliness 1 John Characterisation The language and sensual imagery shows her to be a much more sophisticated and experienced girl than her uncle, Parris, or the community would believe of a young girl. Abigail Act To who? Relevance you are no wintry man 1 John Description of John as a man with warmth and heat in his character – flirty and explicit for the times which shows us her forward and confident personality I never knew the lying lessons I was taught by all these Christian women and their covenanted men! 1 John The affair with John has opened her eyes to a life and a relationship with a man that she has never been taught about – now that she knows about mutual passion, love making and that someone like John can have an affair it makes all the things she has been taught a lie. The adults must know these things go on but as children they would never be told these things as it would be unchristian and seen as evil/dirty/against God’s will etc etc I never sold myself! I’m a good girl! I’m a proper girl! 1 Hale Desperately trying to find a way out of the situation and of being accused herself. She made me do it! She made Betty do it! 1 Hale KEY moment. The start of the accusations and the hysteria I want to open myself! I want the light of God, I want the sweet love of Jesus! I danced for the Devil: I saw him: I wrote my name in his book…I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil!... 1 Hale Using religious language to increase the intensity and persuade Hale and Parris and the rest of those there that she is sincere - using language that refers to God and His love would be taken very seriously and not questioned. Here she is abusing that knowledge to get herself out of her predicament. The start of the very hysterical accusations. No I cannot, I cannot stop my mouth; it’s God’s work I do. 3 Mary Warren/court Using God’s name (religious language)to reinforce the impression she wants to give that she is “good”. You will not! Begone! Begone 3 To the “bird” Just as Hale has said he has always thought Abigail false she starts to become HYSYERICAL again to divert attention away from the truth. Abuse of her POWER. DANFORTH QUOTES Danforth Act To who? Relevance This is the highest court of the supreme government of this province 4 Giles Characterisation. Using his status and position to ensure he gets the respect he feels he deserves. Mary Warren draw back your spirit out of them! 3 Mary Warren Clearly believes in the witching of Abigail by Mary; shows belief in Abigail and in evil spirits; drawn in by Abigail’s and the girls’ HYSTERIA; Demands she do this as if she has control and as if anything he asks must be done. We burn a hot fire here; it melts down all concealment 3 Proctor Use of imagery – the crucible – to give the claim more power. Dramatic ironyas they have a huge amount of power to find the truth but this is not what is happening and the audience and some characters know this which creates tension . Growing hysterical 3 Miller’s stage directions Even Danforth is drawn into the HYSTERIA. Shows how powerful it/Abigail was. And seventy two hang by that signature 3 Francis Nurse Proud of the fact he has hung these people accused of witchcraft Do you know, Mr Proctor, that the entire contention of the state in these trials is that the voice of Heaven is speaking through the children? 3 Proctor Cannot believe that Proctor would question the girls and their accusations – ironic that the court and proceedings have been dominated and led by children who are so much more guilty than anyone can imagine. Danforth Act To who? Relevance You are combined with 3 anti-Christ. I have seen your power; you will not deny it! Proctor Using the power of religious language to make the moment more intense and give his statement more credibility. You must understand sir that a person is either with us or he must be counted against it 3 Proctor Underlines the stress and pressure that people were under to be seen to be on the court – God’s- side and not be accused. There is a fear in the country because there is a moving plot to topple Christ in the country! 3 Hale The fear that those in authority have that the communities and the country will disintegrate without the law of God to keep everyone law abiding and keep them scared of questioning the authorities. The abuse of this power is what continues to fuel the accusations and the hysteria. Children, a very augur bit will now be turned into your souls until your honesty is proved, 3 Mary Warren and Abigail Powerful and visual language to reinforce the threat. To God every soul is precious and His vengeance is terrible on them that take life without cause 3 Abigail Powerful and religious language to reinforce the importance of the damnation – and also ironic as it is Danforth that is taking innocent lives even though he is noes not know it She spoke nothing of lechery and this man has lied! 3 To those present in the ante room off the court room KEY moment as Danforth decides that Elizabeth has told the truth and that Proctor has lied about his affair – the irony!! Danforth Act To who? Relevance You will confess yourself or you will hang! Do you confess this power! Speak! Will you speak! Will you confess yourself befouled with Hell, or do you keep that black allegiance yet? You misunderstand, sir, I cannot pardon those when twelve are already hanged for the same crime. It is not just. 3 Abigail Fueling the hysteria and the panic which ensures she will not admit to lying. 3 Proctor Powerful religious language to create intensity and fear in everyone not just Proctor. 4 Hale He is admitting that if he stops now he will look as if he has been mistaken in the other hangings so he cannot do this. Irony again as nothing about these trials has been just and this least of all. I am not empowered to trade your life for a lie 4 Proctor This is exactly what he has been doing all along and is not aware of it. It is the same is it not? If I report it or you sign to it? Do you mean to deny this confession when you are free? 4 Proctor Does not see the significance of Proctor’s demand not to sign his name – that Proctor does not want any evidence of his betrayal of his family and values that he, Proctor, holds dear. Hang them high over the town! Who weeps for these weeps for corruption! 4 To all those present Fueling the hysteria at the end of the Act and the play. Mrs Putnam and other community Act Who to who? Relevance 1 Mrs P to Rebecca Hysteria Shows the revenge and the need for people to blame others for their misfortune as they could not blame God Visual image – crucible/fires within fires 1 Mr Putnam to Parris Fueling the hysteria in the village from the start. You think it God’s work you should never lose a child…and I bury all but one? There are wheels within wheels in this village and fires within fires It is a providence, the thing is out now! It is a providence!