ALDRED VS MCDONOUGH

Report
ALDRED VS
MCDONOUGH
BY
PETER, WILLIAM, THOMAS, ANDREW
ECONOMIC COST &
BENEFIT
ALDRED
 By 1914 over 1/3 of British exports went to the Empire.
 Imperial trade became more and more important to Britain's
economic survival between WWI and WWII.
 The Empire brought work back to its people in particular the British
working class.
 Defence cost were a key issue.
 Empire was no longer relevant and became too costly to maintain.
 Britain had emerged from the war facing huge and with an Empire
less stable than it has been at any other time.
 Empire encouraged preferential trade agreements with Britain and it
colonies.
ECONOMIC COST &
BENEFIT
MCDONOUGH
 Between 1903 and 1914 British exports to the empire
increased by 32%, imports from the Empire increased by
31%, British trade with Africa doubled, and 42% of all
British overseas investment went to the Empire.
ROUND 1… ALDRED!!
 Aldred wins the first round as although they have similar
ideas on Economic cost and benefits, Aldred goes into
more detail and explains the effects on Britain and its
people.
MILITARY/STRATEGIC
COSTS & BENEFITS
ALDRED
 The British empire was defended by the worlds largest navy
and in India alone, 340,000 troops.
 The geographic spread of the Empire demanded an expensive
naval defence system.
 The danger of a aggressive rivalry from Germany became a
serious problem by the start of the 20th century.
 Considerable anti-imperialist reaction followed the brutal
suppression of the revolt of the Matabele in Rhodesia (1893-4)
 Cecil Rhodes: “thoroughly thrashing the natives and giving
them an everlasting lesson.”
MCDONOUGH STUNNED AS
ALDRED GIVES HIM NO TIME
TO REPLY
 McDonough doesn't really mention Military/Strategic
costs and so Aldred clearly takes this round.
INTERNATIONAL STANDING
ALDRED
 The scale of the empire was a ever present measure of
Britain's status as a great power.
 By 1918 Britain’s status as great power and the
assumption that world power was centred in Europe had
been undermined.
 International opposition to Britain’s methods in the Boer
war weakened the support for Imperialism at home.
 This international opposition discredited Imperialism
within the Liberal Party.
INTERNATIONAL STANDING
• MCDONOUGH
 The Boer War “had jeopardised the entire wealth of the nation
in rousing strong resentment of other nations for no real gain”J.A.Hobson
 The idea that Britain was the “world’s policeman” who could
be called upon in an emergency… was deeply weakened
 The High moral tone Britain had struck in its diplomatic
relations since the mid-nineteenth century rang hollow after
the Concentration camps of the Boer War.
 Britain sought diplomatic agreements with imperial rivals
anywhere she could find them.
ROUND 3!! ITS TOUGH BUT
MCDONOUGH TAKES IT
 McDonough takes this round as he differs in his views to
Aldred. He seems to suggest that Britain's problems were
becoming much more serious whereas Aldred doesn’t see
these problems as seriously.
POPULAR
SUPPORT
FOR
EMPIRE
ALDRED
 The Middle classes were avid supporters of the Empire. The
working class less so, and were generally interested in the
issues closer to home.
 The 1900 general election (khaki election) resulted in a
Conservative victory… It appeared that popular support lay
with the government that took Britain to war with the Boers.
 However… “There was considerable media coverage of the
brutality of the war.”
 Many working class voters rejected pro-war candidates in the
1900 election.
 Many working class volunteered for military service not
because they wished to show Patriotism and support the British
empire… because they faced unemployment and poverty at
home
POPULAR SUPPORT FOR
EMPIRE
• MCDONOUGH
 The Boer War really marks the dividing line between the
passionate imperialism of late-Victorian England and the
loss of self-confidence in Britain about its future that has
typified the twentieth century.
 Before the war the worst motive attributed to supporters
of imperialism was excessive patriotism. Imperialism
could even be seen as a “positive mission” designed to
bring civilisation
ALDREDS DETAIL TAKES HIM
FURTHER AHEAD
 Aldred comes away with this round as he goes into more
detail as to why popular support is weakened.
McDonough talks more about popular support before the
war however doesn’t explain in as much detail.
POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR EMPIRE
ALDRED
 In many respects the Empire brought enhanced stability
to the British political system through a developed
perception of national identity and national pride
 By 1901 Britain was spending twice as much as Germany
and French on imperial defence.
 Protection of the empire was a primary objective of
British foreign policy in the late nineteenth century.
 Empire was too costly to maintain and it was impossible
for Britain to ignore, or accommodate, the ever rising tide
of nationalism.
POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR EMPIRE
MCDONOUGH
 “the Empire is heled together by a silken cord; twist this
cord into a whiplash and a crack of the lash would be the
death knell of the empire”- Liberal Colonial Minister
 Britain sought diplomatic agreements with imperial rivals
anywhere she could find them.
ROUND 5 TIED!
 Although Aldred explains foreign policy and mentions
nationalism in regards to the Empire McDonough
manages to hang on with a devastating quote that levels
him with Aldred.
Aldreds
devastating
counter brings
him right back
into the round.
DOES THE BOER WAR MARK
A TURNING POINT IN THE
PERIOD
• ALDRED
 Aldred believes that the turning point for the British
empire came with the First World War.
 The high watermark of anti-imperialism came with the
second Boer War and this graphically illustrates the a
scale of opposition by 1902.
 Political Consensus between the major parties on the
“new imperialism” had evaporated with impact of the
Boer War.
DOES THE BOER WAR MARK
A TURNING POINT IN THE
PERIOD
• MCDONOUGH
• The Boer war was clearly one of those rare turning points in the history
of the empire between 1815 and 1914
• It cast a giant shadow over British attitudes of the empire and imperial
defence…many contemporaries viewed it as the first nail in the coffin of
the British empire
ALDRED 5 – MCDONOUGH 2
 McDonough loses this round to Aldreds explaining yet
again and also to the clarity of his work. The game goes
to Aldred!!! Remember though this was just a bit of…

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