Europe and Africa

Report
Europe and Africa
Can Europe act as a Responsible
Global Player?
Today
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European responsibilities…
Cotonou agreement, beyond post colonialism?
10th European Development Fund
Civil society and the Cotonou Agreement
EU-Africa dialogue
Lunch
• Workshops on influencing European aid to ACP
countries
What common history?
Europe today?
European way of life…
European democracy?
European Parliament elections turnout…
Austria
41.8
Ireland
59.7
Belgium
90.8
Italy
73.1
Cyprus
71.19
Latvia
Lithuania
Czech
Republic
27.9
Denmark
47.8
Luxembourg
EU Average
47,8%
41.23
48.2
90
Malta
82.4
Netherlands
39.1
Poland
20.4
Estonia
26.89
Finland
41.1
Portugal
38.7
France
43.1
Slovakia
16.7
43
Slovenia
28.3
Spain
45.9
Sweden
37.2
United
Kingdom
38.9
Germany
Greece
Hungary
62.8
38.47
European Social Model…
- Europe’s responsibility
- Europe’s model imperfect
Europe should be
responsible and remain
modest
Cotonou agreement:
Innovative agreement beyond
postcolonial relationship?
EU-ACP relations: Brief History
• Rome
• Yaoundé
• Lomé
• Maastricht
• Cotonou
• Lisbon
Structure of the Cotonou
agreement
1. General Provisions (Political dimension
and key principles)
2. Joint Institutions
3. Cooperation (development and trade)
4. Development Finance
Political dimension, strong
principles
• Fight against poverty
• Millennium Development Goals
• Partnership
• Ownership
• Participation
• Dialogue on Human Rights
• Human and Social Development
Joint institutions
• ACP-EU Joint Council
• ACP-EU Committee of ambassadors
• ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly
Development Aid in practice:
European Development Fund
• Programming 2008-2013: €22,8 billion
• Should be “serving the eradication of poverty and
sustainable development”
• “Cotonou principles applied in theory…”
• Priorities reflecting the interest of certain elites in Europe
and in Africa
• Difficult for the European Parliament to get a role in this
process
Trade in practice: Economic
Partnership Agreements
• “Integration of ACP countries into the world economy…”
• Free trade area between the EU and ACP regions
• Towards the end of a trade preference system really in
the interest of ACPs
• Regional integration dictated by the EU
• Strong impact on small ACP producers
• Use of aid to push for further trade liberalisation
Cotonou Agreement: Nice
Rhetoric
Practice to watch
Programming of the 10th European
Development Fund
Who’s interests?
10th European Development Fund
• Countries covered: Sub-Saharan Africa,
Caribbean, Pacific
• Legal basis: Cotonou Agreement (article 179)
• Procedure: Decisions taken by the Commission
and the Council in theory with ACP countries.
• Establish of parliamentary scrutiny still debated
Article 179 TEC
Cotonou
Agreement
Other
International
Commitments
European
Consensus
Regional
Strategies
European Development Fund
CSPs / RSPs
Annual Action
programmes
Council
JPA /
European
Parliament
Drafting of a Country Strategy
Paper
EDF 10 breakdown
2008-2013
1. National and regional cooperation
1.1 National indicative programmes (NIP)
 A-envelopes (programmable funds)
- initial indicative amount
- incentive tranche
 B-envelopes (for unforeseen needs)
- initial allocation
- reserve for B-envelope replenishment and FLEX
1.2 Regional indicative programmes (RIP) (~13% of A-envelopes)
1.3 Reserve for NIP/RIP reallocations after reviews
2. Intra-ACP cooperation
Sub-total operational credits for the ACP managed by the Commission
3. Investment facility (managed by the EIB)
Total operational credits for the ACP
(*) The amounts in bold are those adopted by the Joint Council (02 June 2005)
EDF10
Amount in M€*
19.516
10.800
2.700
600
1.200
1.765
701
2.700
20.466
1.500
21.966
ACP country funding (2008-2013)
General budget support
27,0
Infrastructure, communications and transport
22,6
Rural development and territorial planning
12,1
Governance
10,4
Health
3,3
Water
3,2
Education
2,7
Economic and institutional reforms
2,3
Conflict prevention and fragile states
2,1
TCF
2,1
Agriculture
2,0
Non state actors
1,6
Food security
1,5
Regional economic integration
1,2
Unspecified
1,1
EPA
1,0
Energy
0,9
Private sector development
0,8
Social cohesion and development
0,8
Governance Incentive Tranche
• Part of the money made conditional to the fulfilment of a
profile
• Profile includes: Human Rights, Transparency,
accountability but also trade liberalisation, illegal
migration, fight against terrorism
Allocations:
• 10%: Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Congo Brazzaville;
• 20%: Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Kiribati, Micronesia,
Kiribati, Swaziland;
• 25%: Burundi, Benin, Mali, Senegal, Malawi,
Mozambique, Niger, Sao Tomé & Principe, Senegal,
Lesotho, Liberia, Jamaica, etc;
• 30 – 35%: Rwanda, Botswana, Ghana, Cape Verde,
Benchmarks for scrutinizing EDF
programming
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Ownership
Civil Society Participation
Health and Education
Gender Justice
General Budget Support
Regional Integration and Trade
Environmental Sustainability
Governance
EDF committee discussions
• Almost all draft CSPs ready
• Member States received them all
informally
• Discussions in October/November/
January?
• Qualified Majority needed for longer
discussion
• Mid-Term review coming quickly
Actions to envisage at national
level
• Exchange with EDF committee
representatives
• Contact European members of the Joint
Parliamentary Assembly
• Contact your parliament members (EDF
ratification)
Summary of the process
Draft CSP prepared
by the Commission
Negotiations with
ACP governments
2005 / 2006
End 2006 / beginning 2007
Final draft prepared in
Brussels by Commission
First semester 2007
CSP given a favourable
opinion in EDF committee
October 2007 / January 2008
CSP finalised and signed
Beginning 2007
Implementation monitored
by JPA / EU Parliament??
2008 / 2009
Principles of the Cotonou
Agreement are being violated
within the EDF programming
We should hold our
governments and parliaments to
account on European aid to ACP
countries
Civil Society and the Cotonou
Agreement
Civil Society and the Cotonou
Agreement
• In the ACPs:
– National Cotonou Platform/ Working Groups
– No Pan-ACP gathering
– Attempts to set up an ACP Civil Society
Forum
Civil Society and the Cotonou
Agreement
• In Europe:
– National Africa/Cotonou Working Groups
– Concord Cotonou Aid Working Group
– Concord Cotonou Trade Working Group
Concord Cotonou Aid Working
Group
• Political Agenda:
– 10th EDF programming
– Governance debate
– Budget debate and future of the ACP group
• Key moments
– Influencing EDF committee
(November/December/January)
– Engaging with the JPA (November 2007 / June 2008)
– Assessing the 10th EDF programming (Spring 2008)
– Seminar on the implementation of the 10th EDF
(Autumn 2008)
– Debate on the EC budget review (2008)
Civil Society and the Cotonou
Agreement
• Between Europe and ACP:
– Coordinated advocacy activities
• Sharing information
• Joint letters
– Joint Seminars
• Brussels February 2007, 2008?
– Joint activities
• JPA in Kigali, November 2007
How to engage with ACP NGOs?
• Sharing of information
• Case studies (We decide you own!)
• Joint Parliamentary Assembly
• Cotonou Working Group Seminar
• Visits to your country (meeting with govt,
parliamentarians, Development agency…)
http://www.acp-programming.eu
- Various channels to engage in
EU/ACP discussions.
- Need for specific activities
towards Hungarian government
and parliamentarians.
Time to act…
EU/Africa dialogue, an attempt to
sideline Cotonou?
EU-Africa Dialogue
• Strategic partnership with the whole
continent based on shared objectives and
common values
• Building on values and principles included in:
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EU treaty
Cotonou Agreement
Barcelona Process
AU constitutive act
Nepad Manifesto
Strategies?
• Chinese strategy for Africa
• EU strategy for Africa
• Joint EU-Africa Strategy
• Any African Strategy for Africa?
• Any African Strategy for Europe?
Summit or not Summit?
Joint EU-Africa Strategy…
Political Content
• Peace and Security
• Governance and Human Rights
• Trade and Regional Integration
• Key Development Issues
Institutional Architecture
Follow up : Action plan
Joint strategy: impact on Cotonou
• Adapting existing instruments to new
strategy?
• Review of the Cotonou Agreement in 2010
• Real space for civil society?
Renewed EU/Africa dialogue
could further diminish ACP’s
policy space
Cotonou commitments
should be at least
safeguarded
Workshop
Influencing European aid to African
Caribbean and Pacific countries
Summary of the process
Draft CSP prepared
by the Commission
Negotiations with
ACP governments
2005 / 2006
End 2006 / beginning 2007
Final draft prepared in
Brussels by Commission
First semester 2007
CSP given a favourable
opinion in EDF committee
October 2007 / January 2008
CSP finalised and signed
Beginning 2007
Implementation monitored
by JPA / EU Parliament??
2008 / 2009
Decision Making Process : EDF
committee
• Member States receive CSPs 2 weeks before
meeting
• Comments should be sent to the Commission 3
days before the meeting
• Commission responds to the comments during
the meeting
• Qualified Majority to approve/change a CSP
• Engaging with Hungarian EDF committee
representative
• Engaging with Hungarian members of
parliament
• Engaging with Hungarian members of the Joint
Parliamentary Assembly
• Engaging with Hungarian Media / General public

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