The Industrial Revolution

Report
The Industrial Revolution
1700-1900
Setting the Scene
In the 1700s, small farms covered most of
England. Wealthy landowners were
buying all the small farms. They could
make many improvements in farming
techniques with their money, but many
people were left without jobs.
This is known as the “agricultural
revolution”
Setting the Scene

Technology was
changing how goods
were made
 Small-scale production
by hand at home 
large-scale production
by machine in a factory
Industrialization – switch to machine
production of goods
Activity
 Read
the article “Before the Industrial
Revolution”
 Answer the 10 “Challenges” questions
 Be prepared to be called on randomly!
Why Did it Begin in England?
Large population
2. Natural
resources
3. Expanding
economy
4. Political stability
1.
Activity
 Read
the article “Great Britain: First to
Industrialize”
 Using this information, answer the two
questions on the back on a separate
sheet of paper
 These
will be collected so make sure to put
your name on your answer sheet!
Factors of Production: Land
1.
2.
3.
4.
Water power & coal = fuel for
machines
Iron ore = construct machines,
tools, and buildings
Rivers = inland transportation
Harbors = shipping
Factors of Production: Labor
1.
2.
Unemployed farmers needed
new jobs
People were willing to move to
cities to work in factories
Factors of Production: Capital
1.
2.
3.
Capital = wealth
Business people wanted to invest
money
Banks gave out loans to
businesses
Textiles Change First
 Cottage
industry: people created
goods by hand in their own homes
 Making cloth had been a cottage
industry
 With new technology, cloth is made
faster and cheaper in factories
Activity: The Textile Industry
 Read
the article and answer the
accompanying questions
 Be prepared to randomly be called on!
Activity: The Life of a Textile
Worker
 Read
the two personal accounts of life
as a textile worker
 Answer the four questions on the
bottom
Improvements in Transportation

James Watt’s Steam
Engine
 Cheap, convenient
power

Water Transportation
 Steamboats
 Canal systems

Road Transportation
 Large rocks on bottom
and small on top –
helped drain water
Railroads Revolutionize Life
1.
2.
3.
Cheaper way to
transport goods
Created jobs for
railroad workers
and miners
Made travel easier
– people could
travel for work
Steam Engine
Comparing Viewpoints Activity
 In
this activity, you will read two different
viewpoints on the impact that
industrialization had on society
 On a separate sheet of paper, answer
the three questions on the bottom
Urban Growth

Urbanization: the building of cities and the
movement of people to cities
1850: Population Living in Cities
100
75
50
25
0
England &
Wales
50
25
% Population
France &
Germany
Eastern
Europe
Activity: Why England?
 In
this activity, we will be analyzing a
number of sources to answer the
question “Why did the Industrial
Revolution begin in England”
 For each of the sources, there is an
accompanying question. Read through
each and answer the question.
Living Conditions in Cities
1.
2.
3.
4.
Not enough
housing, schools, or
police
Streets had no
drains, garbage
piled up
Whole families lived
in dark, dirty one
room “apartments”
Disease was
widespread
Working Conditions
 14
hour work days,
6 days a week
 Dirty, poorly lit
factories led to
injuries
 Children as young
as 6 work in
factories
 Many coal miners
killed by coal dust
Activity
“Hazardous Duty – Factory Work During
the Industrial Revolution”
 Use the reading to answer the multiple
choice questions
Class Tensions Grow
 Middle
Class = factory owners, skilled
workers, professionals, business
people, wealthy farmers
 New
social class
 Had most of the money
 Looked down on by the upper class
 Working
class = factory workers,
laborers
 Poorest
group
Reforming Society
 Workers
started getting involved in politics
 Created labor unions
 Unions
represented all the workers in a
particular trade
 Engaged in collective bargaining with
employers
 If employers didn’t agree, workers would
strike (refuse to work)
Creating Unions
 Skilled
workers created the first unions
– harder to replace in workforce
 Was a very tough process
 England
– unions/going on strike illegal
 Eventually
governments look into the
awful conditions
 Most
obvious were child labor problems
Effects of the Revolution
 Creates
jobs, enriches nation,
encourages technological progress
 Increases production of goods, raises
standard of living, gives people hope
of improving their lives
 Education expands, clothing
becomes cheaper, diet and housing
improve
Protecting the Revolution
 Great
Britain did not want to share the
secrets of industrialization
 To protect these secrets, they
FORBADE engineers, toolmakers, and
mechanics from leaving the country
JIGSAW
Writing an Editorial
 Congratulations!
You’ve been promoted
to Editor for the London Times
 Using the information that you gathered
during the jigsaw, you will be writing a
editorial arguing whether or not the
Industrial Revolution improved life in
England and how to fix some of the
existing problems
Industrial Revolution Project
 Let’s
play tic-tac-toe!
 For this project you get to choose what
aspects you would like to focus on!
 You must pick THREE topics – these
can go across, up and down, or
diagonally
Evolving Economic Theories
Mercantilism: The Old Theory
Mercantilism: The Old Theory
 Main
idea: MONEY = POWER
 Import
(buy from another country) as little
as possible
 Export (sell to another country) as much as
possible
 Needed
colonies to make this system
work
 Had been the most popular economy
ACTIVITY
Read the information sheet about your theory
2. Individually list what you think are the most
important parts of the theory
3. With the other students who have your theory
answer these questions (you’re turning these
in!):
1. How would you summarize your theory?
2. What are advantages to your theory?
3. What might be some disadvantages to your
theory?
4. After about 15-20 minutes, we will jigsaw!
1.
Your Opinion
On a sheet on paper, using your notes from
today, answer the question below:
Which theory do you think sounds best or worst?
Which kind would you want to use if you could
choose? WHY?
Make sure to put your name on your paper!
IT IS BEING COLLECTED!
Let’s Review…
Capitalism (Theory A)
 Individuals
have the right to own private
property and businesses
 Government should protect these rights
 Gov’t should stay out of the economy
(laissez-faire)
 Owner can choose what to make, how
much to make, and what price to sell at
Capitalism (Theory A)
 Economy
based on competition
 Prices often lower
 Example:
when only AT&T carried the
iPhone, they could charge whatever they
wanted
 When Verizon began carrying the iPhone,
AT&T had to drop their prices
 Items
probably of better quality
 Why
buy something that isn’t made well if
you can get a better item somewhere else?
Capitalism (Theory A)
 Based
on supply and demand
 Make
products based on what and how
much buyers want
 Gov’t
might have to step in if a
company creates a monopoly
 Too
much control over one industry = less
competition
Sound Familiar?
Think back to the
Enlightenment and
Adam Smith!
Socialism (Theory B)
 Cooperation
instead of competition
 Government controls all means of
production
 Picks what to make and how much to
make
 Supply and demand doesn’t exist
Socialism (Theory B)
A
government using socialism might
promise the people:
 Economic equality
 No more poverty
 Decent houses
 Good working conditions
ACTIVITY
 In
your notebook, compare the
similarities and differences between
capitalism and socialism
Communism (Theory C)
 Many
similarities with socialism
 Equality of the people
 Not
a big difference between rich and poor
 The
people should control the means of
production
 Government
technically owns everything,
but the people run the gov’t, not politicians
Communism (Theory C)
 Cooperation
not competition
 People’s government decides what
goods to produce and how much
 No supply and demand
ACTIVITY
 Capitalism
vs. Communism Identifying
Characteristics
 Review each of the characteristics listed
on the sheet
 Place each on in the proper economic
category
Communism (Theory C)
 Karl
Marx- German journalist
 Fredrich Engels – German, father owns
textile mill
 The Communist Manifesto
 Society is divided into warring classes
 Capitalism helps the “haves”
(employers/bourgeoisie)
 Hurts the “have-nots”
(workers/proletariat)
 Predict workers will overthrow owners
TIME TO STUDY!

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