The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900 Setting the Scene In the 1700s, small farms covered most of England. Wealthy landowners were buying all the small farms. They could make many improvements in farming techniques with their money, but many people were left without jobs. This is known as the “agricultural revolution” Setting the Scene Technology was changing how goods were made Small-scale production by hand at home large-scale production by machine in a factory Industrialization – switch to machine production of goods Activity Read the article “Before the Industrial Revolution” Answer the 10 “Challenges” questions Be prepared to be called on randomly! Why Did it Begin in England? Large population 2. Natural resources 3. Expanding economy 4. Political stability 1. Activity Read the article “Great Britain: First to Industrialize” Using this information, answer the two questions on the back on a separate sheet of paper These will be collected so make sure to put your name on your answer sheet! Factors of Production: Land 1. 2. 3. 4. Water power & coal = fuel for machines Iron ore = construct machines, tools, and buildings Rivers = inland transportation Harbors = shipping Factors of Production: Labor 1. 2. Unemployed farmers needed new jobs People were willing to move to cities to work in factories Factors of Production: Capital 1. 2. 3. Capital = wealth Business people wanted to invest money Banks gave out loans to businesses Textiles Change First Cottage industry: people created goods by hand in their own homes Making cloth had been a cottage industry With new technology, cloth is made faster and cheaper in factories Activity: The Textile Industry Read the article and answer the accompanying questions Be prepared to randomly be called on! Activity: The Life of a Textile Worker Read the two personal accounts of life as a textile worker Answer the four questions on the bottom Improvements in Transportation James Watt’s Steam Engine Cheap, convenient power Water Transportation Steamboats Canal systems Road Transportation Large rocks on bottom and small on top – helped drain water Railroads Revolutionize Life 1. 2. 3. Cheaper way to transport goods Created jobs for railroad workers and miners Made travel easier – people could travel for work Steam Engine Comparing Viewpoints Activity In this activity, you will read two different viewpoints on the impact that industrialization had on society On a separate sheet of paper, answer the three questions on the bottom Urban Growth Urbanization: the building of cities and the movement of people to cities 1850: Population Living in Cities 100 75 50 25 0 England & Wales 50 25 % Population France & Germany Eastern Europe Activity: Why England? In this activity, we will be analyzing a number of sources to answer the question “Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England” For each of the sources, there is an accompanying question. Read through each and answer the question. Living Conditions in Cities 1. 2. 3. 4. Not enough housing, schools, or police Streets had no drains, garbage piled up Whole families lived in dark, dirty one room “apartments” Disease was widespread Working Conditions 14 hour work days, 6 days a week Dirty, poorly lit factories led to injuries Children as young as 6 work in factories Many coal miners killed by coal dust Activity “Hazardous Duty – Factory Work During the Industrial Revolution” Use the reading to answer the multiple choice questions Class Tensions Grow Middle Class = factory owners, skilled workers, professionals, business people, wealthy farmers New social class Had most of the money Looked down on by the upper class Working class = factory workers, laborers Poorest group Reforming Society Workers started getting involved in politics Created labor unions Unions represented all the workers in a particular trade Engaged in collective bargaining with employers If employers didn’t agree, workers would strike (refuse to work) Creating Unions Skilled workers created the first unions – harder to replace in workforce Was a very tough process England – unions/going on strike illegal Eventually governments look into the awful conditions Most obvious were child labor problems Effects of the Revolution Creates jobs, enriches nation, encourages technological progress Increases production of goods, raises standard of living, gives people hope of improving their lives Education expands, clothing becomes cheaper, diet and housing improve Protecting the Revolution Great Britain did not want to share the secrets of industrialization To protect these secrets, they FORBADE engineers, toolmakers, and mechanics from leaving the country JIGSAW Writing an Editorial Congratulations! You’ve been promoted to Editor for the London Times Using the information that you gathered during the jigsaw, you will be writing a editorial arguing whether or not the Industrial Revolution improved life in England and how to fix some of the existing problems Industrial Revolution Project Let’s play tic-tac-toe! For this project you get to choose what aspects you would like to focus on! You must pick THREE topics – these can go across, up and down, or diagonally Evolving Economic Theories Mercantilism: The Old Theory Mercantilism: The Old Theory Main idea: MONEY = POWER Import (buy from another country) as little as possible Export (sell to another country) as much as possible Needed colonies to make this system work Had been the most popular economy ACTIVITY Read the information sheet about your theory 2. Individually list what you think are the most important parts of the theory 3. With the other students who have your theory answer these questions (you’re turning these in!): 1. How would you summarize your theory? 2. What are advantages to your theory? 3. What might be some disadvantages to your theory? 4. After about 15-20 minutes, we will jigsaw! 1. Your Opinion On a sheet on paper, using your notes from today, answer the question below: Which theory do you think sounds best or worst? Which kind would you want to use if you could choose? WHY? Make sure to put your name on your paper! IT IS BEING COLLECTED! Let’s Review… Capitalism (Theory A) Individuals have the right to own private property and businesses Government should protect these rights Gov’t should stay out of the economy (laissez-faire) Owner can choose what to make, how much to make, and what price to sell at Capitalism (Theory A) Economy based on competition Prices often lower Example: when only AT&T carried the iPhone, they could charge whatever they wanted When Verizon began carrying the iPhone, AT&T had to drop their prices Items probably of better quality Why buy something that isn’t made well if you can get a better item somewhere else? Capitalism (Theory A) Based on supply and demand Make products based on what and how much buyers want Gov’t might have to step in if a company creates a monopoly Too much control over one industry = less competition Sound Familiar? Think back to the Enlightenment and Adam Smith! Socialism (Theory B) Cooperation instead of competition Government controls all means of production Picks what to make and how much to make Supply and demand doesn’t exist Socialism (Theory B) A government using socialism might promise the people: Economic equality No more poverty Decent houses Good working conditions ACTIVITY In your notebook, compare the similarities and differences between capitalism and socialism Communism (Theory C) Many similarities with socialism Equality of the people Not a big difference between rich and poor The people should control the means of production Government technically owns everything, but the people run the gov’t, not politicians Communism (Theory C) Cooperation not competition People’s government decides what goods to produce and how much No supply and demand ACTIVITY Capitalism vs. Communism Identifying Characteristics Review each of the characteristics listed on the sheet Place each on in the proper economic category Communism (Theory C) Karl Marx- German journalist Fredrich Engels – German, father owns textile mill The Communist Manifesto Society is divided into warring classes Capitalism helps the “haves” (employers/bourgeoisie) Hurts the “have-nots” (workers/proletariat) Predict workers will overthrow owners TIME TO STUDY!