“WELCOME TO ENGLISH CLASS” About me. The time table Getting to know you. Teaching Speaking by Sri Wuli Fitriati, M.Pd. English Department, FBS, UNNES presented in Workshop for Vocational High School Teachers of English Central Java Province conducted by Dinas Pendidikan Propinsi Jawa Tengah 21- 24 February 2011 5 Fundamental Factors in Planning and Teaching Speaking • • • • • The learner — age, proficiency, goals The program — the curriculum The topics being discussed The ‘two’ languages: in the task, for the task The activity or task that serves as the vehicle for conversation Approaches to teaching speaking (Richards, 1990) I. Direct methods which focused on special features of oral interaction (turn taking, topic management, questioning strategies etc) II. Indirect methods — create situations for interactions ( group work, pair work) Towards communicative competence • According to Littlewood (Communicative Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press, 1981), there is a continuum of classroom activities to promote communicative competence Control Performing Memorised dialogues Contextualised drills Cued dialogues Role play Creativity Improvisation Controlled activities • Remember your (first) English lessons. What kind of student were you? Were you always ready to raise your hand to be invited to speak in the foreign language or did you hope the teacher didn’t see you? • 1. Threat Reduction Activities - of getting-toknow-you activities which promote trust as well as articulation activities -lcebreakers 2. Dialogue building • The use of cues or prompts to build up dialogues is a commonly-used technique. • The cues or prompts determine the content of what is said, and dialogue building activities can range from being highly controlled to very free. 3. Gambits (producing an appropriate response) i. Language to indicate the speaker’s agreement with what has been said ii. Language which indicates polite disagreement iii. Language to indicate possible doubt iv. Language to provide positive and negative feedback v. Language to encourage confirmation and more information 4. Awareness activities • Students need to become aware of what native speakers do in conversation if they are themselves to achieve communicative competence in the target language. • The focus of the awareness activities should target promoting the following issues: • development of the ability to interpret what is being said; • a feeling for what is appropriate in conversation; • awareness of strategies used to further conversation; • awareness of the target culture What can the teacher do to help in the awareness activities • Devise activities to — Show that meaning is affected — Help learners hear the sounds — Point out how to make the sounds and help learners produce them • Provide feedback Examples of Awareness activities i. Observation tasks - audio recordings of people talking; - video recordings of people talking; - conversations as they occur in real time. ii. Sensitivity to the sound system iii.Cross-cultural awareness Fluency activities • The communicative needs of the average foreign student fall within a limited range of purposes, the most important of which are: - the maintenance and development of social relationships; - information exchange; - co-operative problem-solving in English; - expressing ideas and opinions. Techniques and resources Icebreakers Why use icebreakers- Affective Filter • Students need to feel com_______ in order for learning to be effective. • They need to know who is in the classroom with them before they can feel sa_ • They are worried about their friends in the classroom settings and need to be put at ease about the process. • They learn by doing as well as seeing and hearing. • lce breakers can add an emo_ component to the learning. Objectives i. create a positive group atmosphere ii. help students to relax iii. break down social barriers iv. energize & motivate v. help students to think outside the box vi. help students to get to know one another Theoretical implications of Accuracy vs Fluency • Overuse of accuracy monitoring can cripple language development — lose of confidence through over-correction (Brumfit 1979) • Too much emphasis on overcorrecting is harmful — eg causes excessive monitor in the mind - hinders the natural acquisition of spoken skills (Ebsworth, 1998) In summary • Icebreakers can add fun and energy — and set the tone for learning • Must be planned carefully and conducted appropriately • Need to fit in the time frame • Has to make students’ affective filter low • Need to somehow tie with the lesson’s objective • Fluency activities on the other hand can provide learners with a chance to recycle language and vocabulary and help increase confidence • Teachers should allow time for icebreakers/ games Examples of icebreakers Introducing oneself • Write your full name on a piece of paper • Teacher will collect paper and redistribute them • Class walks around and look for the persons whose names they hold • Ask the following questions: i. Hobbies ii. Family iii. Likes • Introduce the person to the class Describe yourself in 3 words • Instructions • Give your students some time to think and choose three words to describe themselves • This could be used when teaching adjectives • Allow time for questions • Taking times • Listening to them patiently What is your favorite food? Instructions • What is your favorite food? • What food have you always wanted to try but haven’t? • Why do you never want to taste in your mouth again? Tears… • Find someone for each category below: i. ii. Cried recently? Not felt embarrassed to cry in front of other people? iii. Cried longer than 3 hours? iv. Never cried in the last 3 years? v. Ever made yourself cry by thinking about sad/happy events? vi. Ever used tears to your advantage? vii. Believed that tears can look attractive? Using an appropriate theme • We should use appropriate themes that our students can identify with, example- joy, sadness, love, etc. • What are some themes that we should avoid?