File - BCVTA and POPDB Conference 2013

Report
Dr. Roberta Heaven
Visual Impairment Program, SHHC
Linking Up Linking In Conference 2013 Workshop
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To understand concepts of resiliency
To be aware of: risk factors
Incidence in BC of Mental Health Concerns in
Children and Youth
Understand incidence in Students with VI
Role of Parents and the Family
Increasing role of Teachers and School
Environment
Vision teachers key position
Strategies that work
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It is our ability to cope with change and
challenges
It is our ability to recover from setbacks and to
react positively and adapt when things don’t go
as planned.
This concept has gained interest in recent years,
particularly with busier, more challenging times,
and greater occurrence of stress, anxiety and
depression disorders among all ages in our
society
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a Mindset
 It’s how we think
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How resilient are you?
In our children and
youth
1 in 5 Canadian children will
develop a mental health concern
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Has been on the rise dramatically in the last
10 years.
84% of students surveyed reported stress and
pressure in the previous month
14% reported it so extreme they could not
cope
Girls and older students more apt to report
extreme stress to point of not being able to
function
Of those reporting major stress, 17% reported
cutting or self-injury
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BC Adolescent Health Survey 2008
About 10 % surveyed reported
health/disability
Of those, this group were twice as likely to
report mental health issues, extreme despair,
stress, self-harm or suicidal ideation.
They felt less safe at school, worse about
their body image and were less likely to have
long term goals
Over ½ did not access support services
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Data sample of 100 children seen through the
program
80% had subscales on the BASC-2
significantly elevated
Most common are:
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Withdrawal
Atypicality
Anxiety
Depression
Poor Functional Communication
Poor Adaptive Behaviour Skills
How to?
In recent years, a standardized assessment
measure has been developed for children
which entails a self-report questionnaire
 The Resiliency Scales for Children and
Adolescents:
A Profile of Personal Strengths
 Comprised of a Sense of Mastery Scale; a
Sense of Relatedness Scale; and an Emotional
Reactivity Scale
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Sense of Mastery Scale:
◦ Optimism; Self-Efficacy; Adaptability
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Sense of Relatedness Scale:
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Emotional Reactivity Scale:
◦ Trust; Support; Comfort; Tolerance
◦ Sensitivity; Recovery; Impairment
◦ Resource Index and Vulnerability Index
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Findings so far
Observations instead
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Has been studied only in the last 50 years
This construct is based on research indicating
there are both protective factors and risk
factors that impact an individual’s resiliency
Protective factors include:
◦ Personal factors such as intellect, temperament and
sociability
◦ Social Environment such as family factors of
attachment, warmth, emotional support
◦ Key environment factors such as positive school
and peer experiences
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Personal traits such as rigid, resistant style
Significant emotional reactivity, negative
outlook
Poor support networks – lack of supportive
family situations
Lack of positive peer or school experiences
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Resiliency is often associated with (Ginsburg 2013)
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Confidence
Competence
Connection
Character
Contribution*
Coping
Control – sense of (external or internal) related to
discipline/ consequences of real action
Strategies to support these skills will also support the
development of greater resiliency
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Some individuals are much more resilient than
others
Some of these traits appear to be genetic
Those who are more resilient tend to be happier,
better adjusted and more successful in their
endeavours
There is a lower incidence of mental health
conditions in those who are more resilient
Latest research indicates it impacts health up to
50 years later!
Most importantly, literature suggests that
individuals can learn to be more resilient!
Role of Parents and
home for little ones
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Not surprisingly, Parents have a key role in
the development of resilient children
Even when the unique individual may not be
easy going by nature, they can be taught to
be a problem-solver
It is key for parents to be fully engaged
This means being able to not just talk the
talk, but walk the walk
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To achieve this, parents must be able to be
engaged so need to be aware of their own needs
and take care of themselves, and,
Be committed to a set of common values, and,
Commit to teaching to build skills to support
positive resilient children
Be aware of the pressures that can interfere:
financial, employment demands, roles in the
family, child behaviour and time pressures just to
name a few ( may be even more relevant when
children have challenges)
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Is important to be a resilient parent
Meeting your own needs ( sleep, nutrition,
down time, relationship time)
Keeping perspective
Support network – identifying supports and
USING them
Resources – such as agencies CNIB, VIP, Blind
Beginnings, SHERC, Shared Vision
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Parenting in a family with children with
unique and varied needs can provide a wealth
of experience and learning
Can bring parents together and unite a family
in a close knit and loving way
Can promote and encourage everyone to be
their personal best and be grounded in what
really matters
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So many things to teach, guide and encourage…
Bonding and attachment
Motor skills
Communication skills
Self-help and personal care skills
Concepts
Socialization skills
Problem- solving and learning about the world
Values, perspective, attitude…resilience
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So Busy – Overwhelming
Being pulled in many directions – health
needs, developmental challenges, sensory
needs
Other people in the family need time too
Work and household demands
Unique child characteristics – social/shy,
easy-going/stubborn, receptive/not!
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Love
Honesty
Respect
Gratitude
Generosity
Uniqueness
Spirituality
Creativity
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Curiosity
Forgiveness
Humour
Positive Attitude
Persistence
Passion
Accountability
Compassion
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We want to encourage a love of learning in
our children
Not just about school but well beyond it
Goal to be life long learners and have the
tools to do it
This means encouraging
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Curiosity
Willingness to try new things
Knowledge is powerful
Mistakes can be a powerful part of learning and
growth
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As parents we want to protect our children, and
at times prevent them from learning the hard way
While this is very appropriate with safety issues,
we need to give them room, time, and
permission to go ahead and learn for themselves
too – this is critical
We can give them the tools, and set up for
success, but letting them do things themselves
or the parts of things that they are capable of
themselves is so important
Having expectations that they will is also
important
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This is especially true when our children have
added challenges to being a small child such as
having a visual impairment or motor challenge
We may find ourselves doing things they are
capable of as it is faster and we are dashing to
get out the door
We may not expect one child to bring their dishes
to the sink as it is more difficult, but we should
expect the part they can contribute – it builds
sense of belonging, self-efficacy, self-esteem
Fairy godmother experiences do not foster
understanding
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We want to be part of routines and
experiences
Be active versus passive learners
Provide the information needed to make the
connections for full understanding
We want them to become problem-solvers
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1. What is the problem? (define objectively,
specifically)
2. What are possible solutions? ( generate as
many as viable)
3. Consider each possible solution ( think it
through)
4. Choose the best solution and do it
5. Evaluate – Did it work? If so, great, if not,
back to 3.
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Teaching your child a problem-solving
perspective empowers them.
If every challenge is merely a problem to be
solved, children learn they have potential to
overcome the challenge, that they can find a
solution, or can get help to find it.
Teaching this way of thinking is one of the
most powerful things you can do as a parent
to protect your child from future mental
health issues such as depression.
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Several ways that work to help your child
learn everything from basic self-care to more
complex social skills:
◦ Instructions: Teaching by describing
 For children who have a visual impairment, they may
not be able to benefit fully from vicarious learning,
distant learning or details learning
 Providing description paired with experience
 Providing the Big picture as many children learn partto-whole
 Describing something new in terms of something they
already know
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Modelling: teaching by showing:
◦ Demonstration
◦ Hand- over-hand or hand- under-hand
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Shaping: teaching by approximations
Teaching step by step
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The early years build an expertise with your child
This expertise on who your child is, how they
react to new situations, what circumstances set
up for the most receptive teaching moments,
how they communicate allows you to inform
others – daycare, preschool, kindergarten
How to SET-UP-FOR-SUCCESS
Children must feel safe to learn
Encourage them: “ pretty soon, you will find
that’s easier to do – or next time you can choose
to…”
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Thankfully this is done in the context of what you
do already everyday, but with mindfulness
Quality time, attention and focus and show they
matter
Read with your child – endless possibilities
Limit screen time – instead Play with your child
even for a few minutes
Talk about, and live joint family values
Talk about and teach values, skills, to build selfesteem, self-efficacy and optimism through
problem-solving
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Focus on:
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Family
Love
Sense of purpose more than happiness
Who a child would like to be (as opposed to what )
Less on grades and more on learning and curiosity
The importance
of teachers and
the school
environment
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Remember every child is UNIQUE – with a
personality and temperament all their own
Taking joy in who they are and what they do
helps form a positive view of self
Interaction with your child in care activities, daily
routines, down time, comforting and play all help
build confidence, flexibility and foster secure
attachment
From the time we are born we are seeking to
predict our environment, as we do this we build
trust, confidence and are open to learning
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It is vital for children to feel loved, valued and a
sense of belonging
This starts in the family and extends to
community
Giving them opportunities to do tasks ( or parts
of tasks) that they are capable of helps build
self-confidence
This also means giving opportunities for trial and
error, free-play, and age-appropriate decision
making
Giving reasons for your decisions help children to
be able to apply them also.
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Through these opportunities, children can build
coping skills and be better able to take risks with
new experiences, reach out to others, and be
able to get along
Give praise: describe and notice: I see you made
a tower all by yourself or I like the way you ….
Let them make some decisions from an early age
but set up for success “ would you like to wear
the blue shirt or the green shirt?”
Give direction: talk about the action ( behaviour),
not the child - notice positives, sandwich
technique
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Help encourage realistic thinking
◦ Often it is not the problem but the way the child is
thinking about it – spilt paint
◦ Help them label their feelings
◦ Help them to gain perspective ( not the end of the
world)
◦ Only if they will talk with you can you learn what
they are thinking and help them to dispel errors in
thinking
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Encourage children to use words to express
feelings and not just a physical response
Provide words when they are reacting “I can see
you are feeling mad right now…”
A child’s understanding of feelings grows as they
do
A child with big emotions has a bigger job to be
able to be in control of them than a more mild,
easy going child
Teach some strategies for managing feelings,
such as self-talk, deep breaths or an action like a
squishy pillow or scribble book
A positive tipping point at almost any stage
in school
You can make a
difference
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6 environmental influences teachers can
create:
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Increase prosocial bonding:
Set clear, consistent boundaries:
Teach “life” skills:
Provide unconditional caring and support:
Set and communicate high expectations:
Provide opportunities for MEANINGFUL
participation:
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Far to easy to see what’s wrong
Focusing on what is wrong and trying to fix it
doesn’t seem to work
Instead,
Look for their strengths and build on them
BELIEVE
It works just like THE SECRET
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“Children will be more resilient if the
important adults in their lives BELIEVE in them
UNCONDITIONALLY and hold them to HIGH
EXPECTATION”
It’s really all about LOVE – respect, delight in
them as individuals
“Children live up or down to the expectations
we set for them.”
KEY WORDS: Time, Nurturance, Love
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Must be careful not to undermine their sense
of self
Allow safemistakes – the most important
lessons
Talk in ways young people understand
Keep in mind the level of thinking – where
they are at (not adult) –often still concrete
Don’t lecture and don’t tell them not to do….
Instead, respectfully guide them in what to do
 Teach
Positive Coping
Skills – model daily
 Included in this:
◦Is it real or a paper tiger
◦This too shall pass
◦Some good things remain
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They may – engage or disengage
They may focus on emotions or problems
Many of the social emotional issues – eating
disorders, cutting, drug or alcohol use are
coping strategies to deal with stresses
Criticizing without providing alternate
strategies just makes it worse
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Make the problem manageable - break it down
Teach active avoidance – when this works
Model how to let some things go
Value of exercise for stress release
Relaxation tools
Importance of nutrition, sleep
How to take a mind vacation – READ
Use of emotional releases – cry, laugh, journal
Change the world – one act at a time - contribute
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Resiliency is a child’s ability to cope or
bounce-back from changes or challenges that
come along in life
While some people have more of this,
resiliency skills can be learned
Parents are key in promoting the development
of these coping skills
Children are children first, and any challenges
they face are add-ons.
Caring adults – Teachers, SEA’s, community
Can make a huge difference in a child’s
outcome
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Even with taxed schedules, the time you give
can make all the difference!
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The children we serve are AMAZING PEOPLE
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Shared Vision:
BC Vision teachers
UBC Vision teacher and O&M Program
PRCVI and SET BC
CNIB
BC Blind Sports
Blind Beginnings
Visual Impairment Program SHHC
Visual Impairment Clinic QA
CLVP
POPDB and CDBRA
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www.resiliency.com has a free mentorship
manual
By November, 2013 a huge manual will be
released in the US based on the work of
Ginsberg and others
The bottom line is love unconditionally and
hold children in high expectations
[email protected]

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