Unit 10 “Use English to learn it” 10-1 Content-Based Instruction (especially for ESP, EOP, and immersion programs) Background • Acquiring content (a subject matter) through language under the influence • of Immersion Education where foreign language instruction is taught through the • medium of the foreign language or for learners who need language to carry out specific roles such as nurse, engineer and so on (Language for Specific Purposes) • Theory of Language Language is text- and discourse-based Language use draws on integrated skills Language is purposeful • Theory of Language Learning (1) People learn a second language most successfully when the information they are acquiring is perceived as interesting, useful, and leading to a desired goal. (2) Some content areas are more useful as a basis for language learning than others. (e.g. Geography) (3) Students learn best when instruction addresses students’ needs. (4) Teaching builds on the previous experience of the learners. Objectives • (1) to activate and develop existing English language skills • (2) to acquire learning skills and strategies that could be applied in future language development opportunities • (3) to develop general academic skills applicable to university studies in all subject areas • (4) to broaden students’ understanding of English-speaking peoples • Criticism: most language teachers are not trained to teach a subject matter but team-teaching proposals can work • Advantages: it yields to an increase of intrinsic motivation and combination of language learning and different disciplines 10-2 Task-Based Language Teaching: not a new method but from a perspective of CLT • definition of “task” Richards (2001:224): an activity or goal that is carried out using language, such as finding a solution to a puzzle, reading a map and giving directions, making a phone call, etc. Tasks should resemble real-life language use. (CLT) • • • • • • Language is primarily a means of making meaning learning as a set of communicative tasks (techniques or activities) that are directly linked to the curricular goals they serve, the purposes of which extend beyond the practice of lg for its own sake there is some communication problem to solve comparable real-world activities task completion has some priority the assessment of the task is in terms of outcome Types of tasks by Prabhu (p.148-9) • Information-gap activities: involve the exchange of information among participants in order to complete a task • Opinion-gap activities: students give their personal preferences, feelings, or attitudes to complete a task • Reasoning-gap activities: students are required to derive some new information by inferring it from information they have been given • Influences: 1. dependence on tasks as the primary source of pedagogical input in teaching and the absence of a systematic grammatical or other type of syllabus to characterize it 2. aspects justified in TBLT: proposed schemes for task types, task sequencing, evaluation of task performance • Weakness: the basic assumption of it remains in the domain of ideology rather than fact Summary • TBLT views the learning process as a set of communicative tasks that are directly linked to the curricular goals they serve, the purposes of which extend beyond the practice of lg. • A task is an activity in which 1. meaning is primary 2. there’s some communication problem to solve 3. task completion has some priority 4. the assessment of the task is in terms of outcome 10-3 The Participatory approach: (popular in 1980s; Use English to learn it) • The nature of the content is based on issues of concern to learners (experiencec-centered)(difference to the Content-based approach which focuses on the subject matters) • Goal: to help learners to understand the social, historical, or cultural forces that affects their lives and thus take action and make decisions to gain control over their lives • Knowledge is a tool to help students find their voices and act in the world. • Students can create their own materials. • Collaborative investigations of critical themes in students’ lives are done. • The curriculum is not a predetermined product, but the results of an ongoing context-specific problem-posing process.