Chapter 2 Roots of Government pp. 26-60 terms: • Limited government – 29 government is restricted and not all-powerful. – Each individual has rights that government cannot take away. • Representative government – 29 people have a voice in what the government should and should not do. – Government of, by, for the people. Roots of Government • Magna Carta – 29 England’s King John forced by nobles and Church to sign in 1215 – Protect them from arbritrary acts of the monarch – Includes • Trial by jury • Due process of law • The monarch does not have absolute power Roots of Government • Petition of Right, 1628 • 30 English Parliament requires that Charles I confer with it and get approval or he could not have funds. • Limits included – – – – – – King had to follow the law of the land No arbitary arrest or imprisonment Jury trial No martial law in time of peace No quartering of troops without consent No taxation w/o Parliamentary consent Roots of Government • • • • • • • • • • English Bill of Rights 30 1689, new monarch, William had to agree to: give up a standing army in peacetime Allow free elections Monarch may make no laws w/o consent of Parliament No taxation w/o consent of Parliament Allow petitions w/o fear of arrest Allow fair trials Allow freedom from excessive bail Allow no cruel or unusual punishment Roots of Government • Charter colonies – 31 Connecticut and Rhode Island were allowed by the monarch to be self-governing. • Bicameral – 31 The legislature had two lawmaking groups in Royal colonies: • Upper house: selected by the monarch • lower house: selected by voting males Roots of Government • Proprietary colonies • 32 run by a private owner: Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. – The owner appointed the governor, not the monarch Toward Independence • Boycott • 37 refusal to buy or sell certain products or services (often for political or social reasons). – American rebels told the people not to buy English goods and make their own. This was illegal. • Popular sovereignty • 39 government has power only because the people allow it to Brief Review • What do the Magna Carta, Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights all have in Common? (2) – They control the power of the king – They strengthen the power of the popular legislature. • What is the idea called where the government is given its power by the citizens? – Popular sovereignty The Critical Period • Articles of Confederation • 44 1777 The plan that allowed the United States an organized government to fight Britain during the revolution. – States cooperated to fight the British, they allowed the central government to • • • • • • • • • Borrow money Post office Navy Army from the colonies Standards of weights and measures Settle interstate disputes Make war Make treaties Set up a money system EC: The Critical Period – States refused to give up many of their own powers during and after the revolution. – Any changes to the Articles of Confederation needed unanimous agreement by all 13 states. – New national laws required 9 out of 13 states approving – EC: Congress could not (3) • tax • Regulate commerce • Make the states obey any of its laws The Constitution • Virginia Plan – 51 the US government would have three branches • The legislature—Congress—would be bicameral – Lower house would be elected – Upper house would be chosen by the Lower House. • the executive and judiciary chosen by Congress • Congress could force uncooperative states to obey Small states opposed it because they got fewer votes in the legislature. The Constitution’s Keepers • Connecticut Compromise • (The Great Compromise) – 52 Bicameral Congress • Senate = states equal in votes • House of Representatives = states’ votes depend on free population The Constitution’s Keepers • Three-Fifths Compromise • 52 Way to count non-free persons, in states with few free persons EC: Review • Why were Americans so used to expecting democracy? • Ran their many own colonies • Why weren’t the Articles of Confederation effective to run the United States? • The states were not required to obey the national government. The Constitution’s Keepers • Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise • 53 Congress could not – Tax exports – Regulate the slave trade for 20 years – Interfere with migration or importation of slaves • Could impose a small tax Ratification • Federalists – 56 favored ratification of the Constitution • Strong central government • Anti-Federalists – 56 against ratification of the Constitution • • • • Strong state governments Weak central government Wanted more religion Wanted more individual rights Ratification • Quorum • 58 number of delegates required at a vote to make it legal. – George Washington’s election as president, in 1789, was postponed until enough were present to count the electoral votes. • John Adams won the second most votes and became vice president Classwork Chapter 2 pp. 26-60 concepts • England’s American Colonies: types of government….. • 31 though different in type, they all were based on basic ideas of English law and governance. Toward Independence • Describe the evolution of the first American government before our actual independence. • 34-7 since 1607, being so far from England, colonial legislatures ran most of the affairs of their people. • After the French and Indian War, (1763), Parliament tried to take control away from them. Toward Independence • EC: Colonies work together for the first time – The Albany Plan of Union was a first effort to get the colonies to work together on trade and security, 1754 • EC: The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 brought united effort to deal with – the unfair British taxes. • EC: The First Continental Congress, 1774, united delegates to petition the King and Parliament for – fairness and representation. Toward Independence • After shooting had started with the British, in 1775, the Second Continental Congress united the colonial delegates to declare their independence and make plans to fight the British military. • The Second Continental Congress is therefore the first national government of what will be called the United States of America. • EC: The Continental Congress was a federation or a confederation? • Confederation. Ideals listed in the Declaration of Independence • 38 all men are created equal • EC: Born with unalienable rights (3) – Life – Liberty – Pursuit of happiness • Governments serve men to protect those rights • A government that fails the people may be changed or abolished. The Constitution • EC: What were two big issues at the US Constitutional Convention in 1787? • State representation – Big states v. small states • Counting slaves for representation • Limited Government – Separation of powers What were the reasons for the writing and signing of the Declaration of Independence? • EC 38 first they wanted to – describe the ideal principles of free people anywhere. • EC Next, they wanted to – list complaints against the monarchy of Britain showing how the king had acted against the free people and tried to enslave them • EC Finally, they wanted to declare before the world that – they had tried to work with their government fairly, and had no other choice but to leave it. Toward Independence • EC: What is the most common feature of state constitutions? – 39 the most common feature is limited government, • EC: Other commonalities include (3) – Popular sovereignty. – Civil rights and liberties – Separation of powers/checks and balances Mount Vernon and Annapolis Meetings (1785, 1786) • 46 The meetings brought up issues with the national government that made leaders feel the need to do what?: – This would lead to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. What influenced the framers of the Constitution? • EC 48 Writings by European Enlightenment thinkers (4) – John Locke – Voltaire – Baron de Montesquieu – Jean Jacques Rousseau • Ideas from the Articles of Confederation • State constitutions Ben Franklin’s opinion of the US Constitution 49 Though 81, and very ill, he managed to attend a few meetings. p. 35 he spoke of the need to be strongly united and in agreement against an enemy like Britain. E/W, p. 29 • How might the right to petition, first granted in the English Bill of Rights, prevent abuse of power by a monarch? • Without the basic rights established by the Magna Carta and later English bills, the idea of restricted government might not evolve. 6, p. 39 • Why did the first state constitutions share several common features? • They were all based on the ideals that had united the states in their fight for independence. – Limited government – What was the colonial slogan about limited government? EC – “No taxation without representation!” • All the colonies were English to begin with. 6, p. 45 • “The thirst for independence made the new states wary of strong central government” -- text • How is this caution reflected in the weaknesses built into the US Articles of Confederation? • The Articles do not provide for any elements of a strong central government, including…. – An executive – The power to tax – Regulating commerce 12 p. 49 • EC: The Framers (not their names) • The delegates sent by the states to create a Constitution. • What backgrounds did the selected framers share? – Law – Agriculture – Business – politics The Constitution 1/23 • The New Jersey Plan, like the Virginia Plan, pointed out one major worry: – how will states be represented? • Population? • Financial power? • Equality? R, p. 52 • US Slavery, 1790, • Why did the southern states want slaves counted in their states’ total population? – Slave-owning states could have a higher number of representatives. • A tax was imposed for every “other person” so counted. The Federalist (Papers) • Powerful arguments about the Constitution written in New York by – Alexander Hamilton, – James Madison, – and John Jay.