AIR LAW - Eircom

Report
AERODROME OPERATIONS
1. Aerodrome Licensing
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The IAA may licence any aerodrome
This will specify what activities can go on there
e.g. Coonagh, training and private flying but no commercial flying of any description
(including taking on or dropping off paying passengers)
All aircraft must abide by the terms and conditions of use of the aerodrome
Planes may only take off from or land at
An aerodrome licensed under SI 334/2000 or SI 216/2005
A State aerodrome available for civil use
An aerodrome approved by the IAA
A military aerodrome when authorised by the C/O
Private transport flight by balloon or helicopter – anywhere with landowners
permission providing there is no hazard to persons or property
Gliders operating with IAA approval, – anywhere with landowners permission
providing there is no hazard to persons or property
Emergency landings to ensure an aircrafts safety are exempt from the above
AERODROME OPERATIONS
2. General Rules - 1
When operating at or above an aerodrome all VFR aircraft MUST:
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Maintain visual separation from other traffic
Fly the standard joining/approach patterns for that aerodrome
Fly left-hand circuits unless there are local considerations*- pilot has best
view of airfield and traffic on/around it
*e.g. Coonagh – right hand circuit for runway 10 to avoid housing N of the
field
If transiting the area, stay well clear of circuit traffic and defined airfield
entry/exit routes (normally fly at least 1500 ft above the runway)
Land as close into wind as runways will allow
Note: Helicopters (don’t need runway) should stay well clear of aeroplane
circuit
AERODROME OPERATIONS
2. General Rules - 2
At active tower-controlled airports
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Tune radio to Tower frequency and maintain listening watch (Shannon
118.7)
If no two-way radio contact, look out for light signals and check information
in the signals square
Request and obtain ATC clearance for start-up, taxi, takeoff and landing
NEVER enter Aerodrome Control Zone (CTR) without ATC clearance
(unless in emergency – MAYDAY call (see later)
AERODROME OPERATIONS
3. Right of Way Rules
These rules apply to aircraft and vehicles on aprons, taxiways and runways
(Movement Area of airports/airfields) . It is the pilots responsibility to avoid
collisions with other aircraft or vehicles.
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Aircraft taking off or landing have right of way over any other aircraft or vehicles
Vehicles towing aircraft have right of way over other vehicles and taxiing aircraft
Taxiing aircraft have right of way over vehicles NOT towing aircraft
Where two aircraft are taxiing
• If head on, both alter course to the right
• If converging, the aircraft on the left shall give way
• If overtaking, the overtaking aircraft shall pass to the left and stay well clear of the
slower aircraft, and shall not cut in until well clear
Where two vehicles are approaching head on, both will keep to the left
When overtaking, the faster vehicle will keep the slower one on its LEFT
AERODROME OPERATIONS
4. Light Signals at Tower Controlled Airports - 1
If an RT failure occurs when an aircraft is in a CTR, on the ground or in the
air, the pilot may get instructions by light signals from the Tower (see next
slide)
To acknowledge a signal in flight BY DAY
• Rock wings of aircraft
To acknowledge a signal on the ground BY DAY
• Move ailerons or rudder
To acknowledge a signal in flight or on the ground AT NIGHT
• Flash the landing light or nav lights on and off TWICE
AERODROME OPERATIONS
4. Light Signals at Tower Controlled Airports - 2
Light Signal to aircraft
Aircraft in flight
Aircraft on the ground
Steady Green
Cleared to land
Cleared to take off
Green Flashes
Return for landing
(clearance to land will follow)
Cleared to taxi
Steady Red
Give way to other aircraft
and continue circling
Stop
Red Flashes
Airport unsafe, do not land
Taxi clear of landing area
White flashes
Land and proceed to apron
(clearance to land will follow)
Return to starting point on
the airport
Red Pyrotechnic
Do not land at this time
(Over-rules any previous clearance)
AERODROME OPERATIONS
5. Ground Signals -1
Landing Prohibited
Manoeuvring area in bad
state of repair/wet
Landing Area Boundary marker
Movement restricted to runways and taxiways only
Take-off and land using runways only. Other ground
movements unrestricted
Runways or taxiways between two white crosses are
CLOSED and unfit for ANY aircraft movements
AERODROME OPERATIONS
5. Ground Signals - 2
Right-hand circuits in use
or
Land parallel to the shaft
and towards the crossarm
(may be replaced by runway
no.)
Gliding in progress
Helicopter pad
Reporting Point
(Admin. Building
or Terminal)
AERODROME OPERATIONS
6. Marshalling Signals – 1
(Facing the pilot. Often bats are used and lightsticks at night)
STOP.
Arms crossed repeatedly over the head,
the faster the action, the more urgent the
response required
STOP ENGINE(S)
One forearm held in
front of throat, palm down, and moved with a
sawing action across it.
THIS STAND. Both arms straight up, palms
facing in.
LEFT TURN. Right arm held down, LEFT arm
repeatedly moved up and back, the faster the action
the tighter the turn
AERODROME OPERATIONS
6. Marshalling Signals – 2
(Facing the pilot)
RIGHT TURN. Left arm held down.
RIGHT arm repeatedly moved up and back,
the faster the action the tighter the turn
SLOW DOWN. Arms held at an angle to
the body and moved up and down with the palms
facing down
ALL CLEAR. Lower part of right arm vertical,
thumb pointing up
AERODROME OPERATIONS
7. Aerodrome Lights
The larger aerodromes will probably have one or more of the following light
systems:
Aerodrome Beacon. A strobe (flashing light) white or green or both. Switched on at night
if aerodrome is open and by day if the weather is below minimum VFR conditions.
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) lights. Four lights in a line perpendicular to
the runway, usually positioned about 300m from the threshold, designed to inform the
pilot whether he is on the correct glideslope (usually 3⁰).
On glideslope
A little below glideslope
Well below glideslope
A little above glideslope
Well above glideslope
Visual Approach Slope Indicators (VASI) lights. Two pairs of lights, one pair about 30m behind
the other (virtually superseded by PAPI system)
On glideslope
Below glideslope
Above glideslope
AERODROME OPERATIONS
8. Runway components (ideal runway)
Runway
markings
Runway
markings
Runway. Take-off run or landing distance available - TORA /LDA)
Stopway. Extension of runway for aircraft to stop after aborted take-off.
Threshold. Length of runway before the runway markings as viewed
from an aircraft about to land
Clearway. Clear space at the end of the runway for initial stage
of an aircrafts climb-out
Emergency Distance is the TORA /LDA plus the Stopway
Take-off distance available (TODA) is usually the length of the Runway plus Stopway
plus Clearway

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