Describe the adaptations of the musculoskeletal system and energy systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week training programme. Muscular system: 1. Hypertrophy 2. Increase in tendon strength 3. Increase in myoglobin stores 4. Increased number of mitochondria 5. Increased storage of glycogen and fat 6. Increased muscle strength 7. Increased tolerance to lactic acid Energy systems: 1. Increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes 2. Increased use of fats as an energy source Skeletal system: 1. Increase in bone calcium stores 2. Increased stretch in ligaments 3. Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage 4. Increased production of synovial fluid Describe the adaptations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week training programme. Cardiovascular system: 1. Cardiac hypertrophy 2. Increase in stroke volume 3. Increase in cardiac output 4. Decrease in resting heart rate 5. Capillarisation 6. Increase in blood volume 7. Reduction in resting blood pressure 8. Decreased recovery time 9. Increased aerobic fitness Respiratory system: 1. Increased vital capacity 2. Increase in minute ventilation 3. Increased strength of respiratory muscles 4. Increase in oxygen diffusion rate Explain the adaptations of the Musculoskeletal, Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Energy systems to longterm exercise such as a sixweek training programme.