P3, P4, M2 Long term effect of exercise on various systems

Describe the adaptations of the musculoskeletal system and
energy systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week
training programme.
Muscular system:
1. Hypertrophy
2. Increase in tendon strength
3. Increase in myoglobin stores
4. Increased number of mitochondria
5. Increased storage of glycogen and fat
6. Increased muscle strength
7. Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Energy systems:
1. Increased aerobic and anaerobic
2. Increased use of fats as an energy
Skeletal system:
1. Increase in bone calcium stores
2. Increased stretch in ligaments
3. Increased thickness of hyaline
4. Increased production of
synovial fluid
Describe the adaptations of the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week
training programme.
Cardiovascular system:
1. Cardiac hypertrophy
2. Increase in stroke volume
3. Increase in cardiac output
4. Decrease in resting heart rate
5. Capillarisation
6. Increase in blood volume
7. Reduction in resting blood pressure
8. Decreased recovery time
9. Increased aerobic fitness
Respiratory system:
1. Increased vital capacity
2. Increase in minute ventilation
3. Increased strength of
respiratory muscles
4. Increase in oxygen diffusion
Explain the adaptations of
the Musculoskeletal,
Respiratory and
Energy systems to longterm exercise such as a sixweek training programme.

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