YEAR 9 PE THEORY 2013/2014

Report
Lesson 1
Learning Objectives
 All students to understand the terms exercise, diet, work
and rest.
 Most students to be able to explain the link between
them.
 Some students to be able to describe the effects they
have on personal health and well being.
How do we achieve personal health and well-being?
 Exercise…
 The fitness necessary to work and enjoy life.
 Work…
 Provides finance, motivation and opportunity.
 Rest…
 Adequate rest balances the two.
 Health…
 A state of physical, mental and social well-being.
 Anything missing?
Diet and The Energy Balance
 Diet can be defined as the normal food we eat.
 Diet is an important part of providing the energy needed
to work and exercise, and also to rest and repair tissues.
Booklet!
Diet and Nutrition
 Diet can be defined as the normal food we eat.
 However there are other special diets that many people
follow.
 Can you think of any?

Vegan, Gluten free, vegetarian.
 Different types of diet may also be used for different
reasons.
 Can you think of any?

To suit body composition, suit religion, allergies.
Why Do We Need Energy?
 Even when you are relaxed and resting you need energy.
 You need it to keep you warm, to keep heart beating, lungs breathing and
for all the reactions that go on in your cells.
What Is Energy Balance?
 Energy balance means taking in (???) and using up (???) an equal number
of calories.
 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of energy you need just to stay
alive, awake and comfortably warm.
 Everyone has a different BMR - this is why some people may eat less food
but actually put on weight, while others appear to be able to eat anything
they like without putting on weight.
The Energy Balance
If a person is eating the same amount of calories as they burn up when
doing physical activity, their weight will stay the same!
ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT (weight stays same)
The Energy Balance
If a person eats more calories than they burn up through physical
activity, they will put on weight!
ENERGY IN > ENERGY OUT (weight increases)
The Energy Balance
If a person eats less calories than they burn up through physical
activity, they will lose weight!
ENERGY IN < ENERGY OUT (weight decreases, you
lose fat!)
Lesson 1
Learning Objectives
 All students to understand the terms exercise, diet, work
and rest.
 Most students to be able to explain the link between
them.
 Some students to be able to describe the effects they
have on personal health and well being.
Plenary
 You might have good personal health and well-being, but do you have
personal knowledge and understanding?
 TEST YOUR PARTNER!
 Devise 3 questions for your partner based on the pages you have completed
today, you may keep a tally if you wish. KNOW YOUR MARK SCHEME!
Homework
 You’re lucky this week…
Lesson 2
Learning Objectives
 To know what Macro and Micro Nutrients are.
 To explain the importance of a nutrient for personal
health and well-being.
 To apply this knowledge when understanding the
term Energy Balance.
Factors of a Balanced Diet
 There are two main categories that make up a balanced
diet these are:
Macro Nutrients and Micro Nutrients
Macro Nutrients
Micro Nutrients
Carbohydrates
Minerals
Fats
Vitamins
Proteins
Fibre
Food Intake
What important factor for a well balanced diet is
missing from the diagram?
Functions of the Nutrients
 Carbohydrates
Heat and energy.
 Fats
Insulation, heat and energy.
 Proteins
Repair and growth/ some energy.
 Minerals
Protection from disease, building and repair.
 Vitamins
Protection from disease, building and repair.
Carbohydrates
 There are 2 main types of carbohydrates.
 Simple (Sugar)
 Complex (Starch)
 Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose by the digestive system.
 Glucose is then taken into the blood stream.
 Is stored as Glycogen in the muscles and liver.
 If these stores are full then Glycogen is converted into fat and stored under the
skin and in the abdominal cavity attached to the organs.
Fats

Fats are broken down in the body into saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids.

Fats, like carbohydrates, give us energy but at a slower rate.

Fats need extra oxygen supplies to provide energy.


Saturated Fats
Animal products such as milk, cheese, cream and butter.
Unsaturated Fats
We find unsaturated fats in fish and plant products such as corn,
nuts and soya beans.
Proteins

Proteins main function in the body is growth and repair.

The essential use of protein is as a body builder in respect
of muscles, and as a repairer of damaged tissue.

Very useful for a recovering athlete.

Proteins are carried around the body via the blood stream
into the liver where they are processed for various
purposes.

Protein comes from two types of food


Animal Protein
Plant or Vegetation Protein
Minerals
 Minerals are substances required by the body for a variety of
functions.
 These include calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and
phosphorus.
 Others minerals such as iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride and
selenium are also required but only in small amounts
 Calcium
 Used for growth and repair of our bones and teeth.
Fibre
 This is a blanket term for all unabsorbed food that goes
through the digestive tract. It's vital to help stimulate the
bowels to excrete waste products on a regular basis.
 Fibre is found in leaves, stems roots seeds and fruits.
Water
 Water is a means of transport for nutrients, waste and hormones.
 Water also regulates the body _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.
 Water also produces digestive enzymes, and enables the body to glean all
the beneficial nutrients from the foods and drinks we consume.
 How many glasses of water should we drink a day on average?
 Answer:
Your job for the next 2 lessons…
 In small groups you will be given some information on the energy balance
or one of the macro or micro nutrients that make up a balanced diet.
 You will have to produce a presentation for the rest of the class teaching
them about your topic.
 Presentations need to last 5mins.
 You can be as creative as you like so think….

Posters? Poems? Raps? Plays?
 THE CHOICE IS YOURS!
Lesson 2
Learning Objectives
 To know what Macro and Micro Nutrients are.
 To explain the importance of a nutrient for personal
health and well-being.
 To apply this knowledge when understanding the
term Energy Balance.
Plenary
 In pairs, take it in turns to name a fact that you have leant today. Whoever states
the last fact wins! Remember to say content such as what types of nutrients there
are, as well as how these affect the body.
Homework
• Continue working on your presentations so they are ready to present in the first 10
minutes of next lesson.
Lesson 3
Learning Objectives
 To know what Macro and Micro Nutrients are.
 To explain the importance of all nutrients for personal health
and well-being.
 To apply this knowledge when understanding the term Energy
Balance.
Continue working on your
presentations, in 10 minutes we will
present our material to the rest of the
class.
Remember when you are watching
the other groups presentations, you
have questions to answer in your
theory booklets so make sure you are
concentrating!
Blood Flow During Exercise
 What is sent to the muscles during exercise?
 What is sent to the gut to digest food?
 When we start to exercise, blood is sent to the working muscle. Less blood
is therefore available to digest food in the gut.
 Can lead to cramps and stomach discomfort.
 Known as blood shunting.
 What impact may this have on when and how you train?
Lesson 3
Learning Objectives
 To know what Macro and Micro Nutrients are.
 To explain the importance of all nutrients for personal health
and well-being.
 To apply this knowledge when understanding the term Energy
Balance.
Plenary
 In pairs, take it in turns to name a fact that you have leant today. Whoever
states the last fact wins! Remember to say content such as what types of
nutrients there are, as well as how these affect the body…you know have a lot
more knowledge and content!
Homework
 Research a definition for ‘Somatotype’, have it written down ready to explain
next lesson.
Lesson 4
Learning Objectives
 To know the meaning of SOMATOTYPE, and the
three different kinds of somatotype.
 To explain the characteristics of each somatotype.
 To apply the characteristics of a somatotype to a
sporting example.
Lesson 4
But First…
 You have two minutes to fill in your front page.
 It’s only 3 ticks!
 Be honest about where you are before the lesson and
after, that way you can identify if you have
progressed from 4th place to Gold.
Somatotypes
 A category to which people are assigned according to the
extent to which their bodily physique conforms to a basic
type.
(Oxford English Dictionary, 2013)
 The structure or build of a person.
 The word somatotype means…
the _________ of your body.
Somatotypes
 A category to which people are assigned according to the
extent to which their bodily physique conforms to a basic
type.
(Oxford English Dictionary, 2013)
 The structure or build of a person.
 The word somatotype means…
shape of your body.
the _________
Somatotypes
 Anagrams:
osemmorph
tocemorph
Mesomorph
End
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27531
nodemorph
www.A6training.co.uk
Ectomorph
Endomorph
To recap…
LO1
 What is the meaning of somatotype?
 Show of fingers, how many can you name?
Somatotypes
End
 Thirty Seconds:
 How many different body types can you and your partner come
up with?
Mesomorph
ecTomorph
enDomorph
 ECTOMORPH
 T= TALL
 ENDOMORPH
 D = DUMPY
 MESOMORPH
 M = MUSCULAR
Pay Close Attention
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lOR4XFVx36U
End
www.A6training.co.uk
Skinny
Muscular
Narrow Hips
Athletics
Pear-shaped
Strength
Power
Lean
Overweight
Endurance
Solid
Fat
To recap…
LO2
Endomorph
An individual with wide hips and narrow
shoulders, characterised by fatness.
Mesomorph
An individual with wide shoulders and
narrow hips, characterised by muscularity.
Ectomorph
An individual with narrow shoulders and
narrow hips, characterised by thinness.
Ectomorph
 Sports such as, marathon running,
cycling, rock climber and high jumping.
 These examples show the best body
type is often a mixture of two body
types – combining linearity and
muscle e.g. high jumper.
 This is because these sports require a
slight mass to carry, but muscle to
endure or be explosive in their event.
Endomorph
 Sports such as a sumo wrestler, shot
putter or rugby forward.
 This is because the nature of these
sports often depend on power.
Their extra body fat means that they
can get more weight behind either
themselves (tackle) or an action
(throw).
Mesomorph
 Sports such as a sprinter, gymnast
and a weight lifter.
 This is because these sports tend
to require strength and sudden
bursts of energy. This means they
generally work anaerobically and
so not for long periods of time.
Sports for Somatotypes
 Class list of sports.
 On page 4, fill in the diagram with AT LEAST one different sport for each
somatotype. Identify what sports are suited, explain they are suited, and
analyse they might not be suited to other sports.
 Use the example at the top of the page to help you.
LO3
 What do we have…
Plenary 1
 TEST YOUR PARTNER!
 Devise 3 questions for your partner based on the somatotype pages you have
completed today.

Examiners: Know your mark scheme!

Sitters: Keep a tally of your marks.
 When you make your questions, try to make one a bronze question, one a silver
question and one a gold question across the learning objectives!
Plenary 2
Exam questions June 2008
Complete the statements below about different body types.
(a)
Somatotype refers to the __________ of a __________. (2)
(b)
________________ tend to be very muscular. (1)
(c)
Eating f_____ may change your body type to an _____________. (2)
(d)
Ectomorphs have a very slim build, they tend to be tall and have ___________
shoulders. Ectomorphs have a suitable body type for
. (2)
(e)
Ectomorphs are not suited to _____________________ because
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________. (2)
(f)
Explain the energy balance which relates to and endomorph.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________. (2)
Plenary 2
Exam questions June 2008
Complete the statements below about different body types.
(a)
Somatotype refers to the shape of a person. (2)
(b)
Mesomorphs tend to be very muscular. (1)
(c)
Eating fat may change your body type to an endomorph. (2)
(d)
Ectomorphs have a very slim build, they tend to be tall and have narrow
shoulders. Ectomorphs have a suitable body type for distance running. (2)
(e)
Ectomorphs are not suited to weight lifting because their narrow, thin frames and
lack of muscle means ectomorphs may lack strength and power. (2)
(f)

Explain the energy balance which relates to and endomorph. (2)
Endomorphs relate to the energy balance concept that if a person eats MORE
calories than they burn up, then they will put on weight.
Energy in is greater than energy out, weight increases.

Lesson 4
Learning Objectives
 To know the meaning of SOMATOTYPE, and the three
different kinds of somatotype.
 To explain the characteristics of each somatotype.
 To apply the characteristics of a somatotype to a
sporting example.
REVISION LESSON
 Your job…
 To create an A3 revision poster covering everything we
have done over the past 4 lessons.
 This, along with your theory booklets, is then going to
help you revise for your mini test next week (with the
neatest then being put up on display!).

This is an examEXAM
to see how much you have learnt over the
MINI
past 5 lessons, and will show you which areas you may need
to spend more time revising on in preparation for your April
PE Exam.
 You will not be allowed to use your booklet.
 The exam will be carried out in silence.
 You will have 30 minutes to complete the exam.
 You can then mark a friends paper using the mark scheme
provided.
What does your score mean?
22 = A*
Between 19-21 = A
Between 15-18 = B
Between 12- 14 = C
Between 9- 11 = D
Between 6-8 = E

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