ClickerQuestions_Psychology_Laumakis

Report
Biological Bases of Behavior
Sophie had a bad fall while snowboarding. After being rushed
to the hospital, she underwent a brain imaging technique where
still pictures of her brain were taken. Although everything
appeared to be intact, her doctors were still unsure if Sophie's
brain functioning was normal. Sophie received a(n):
A.
B.
C.
D.
EEG
PET scan
MRI
fMRI
Your life would be most immediately
threatened if you suffered destruction of
the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Thalamus
Pons
Medulla
Cerebellum
A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its
whiskers by direct stimulation of the
_____________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Temporal
Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
If a picture of a comb is briefly flashed in the left
visual field of a split-brain patient, she would
most likely be able to:
A. use her left hand to draw a picture of the
comb.
B. orally report what she saw.
C. use her right hand to write the word "comb.“
D. use her right hand to draw a picture of the
comb.
Neurotransmitters are chemical
messengers that travel across the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
cell body.
synaptic gap.
myelin sheath.
threshold.
Development
Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her
short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's
tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the
same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks
the concept of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
conservation.
egocentrism.
assimilation.
object permanence.
Which of the following stages of
development, in your opinion, presents
the greatest challenges?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Infancy
Childhood
Adolescence
Early adulthood: becoming a parent
Middle adulthood: midlife transition
Late adulthood: 65 and beyond
Three-year-old Sara calls all four-legged animals “kitties.”
Her tendency to fit all four-legged animals into her
existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
object permanence.
conservation.
assimilation.
accommodation.
Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her
short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's
tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the
same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks
the concept of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
conservation.
egocentrism.
assimilation.
object permanence.
Children who spend their early years isolated from human contact
and the sound of adult language are unable to develop adult language
skills despite extensive training efforts later. This phenomenon
provides evidence for the notion that:
A. there is a critical period in language
development.
B. children are born with a language
acquisition device.
C. there are no fixed stages in language
development.
D. language skills are hereditary.
Research about parenting styles has found an association
between authoritative parenting and positive outcomes in
children. The key limitation to such studies is:
A. they are not based on representative
samples.
B. they had too many control groups.
C. they are based on correlations and
“correlation does not mean causation.”
D. parents never tell the truth.
Sensation and Perception
You find that you have to add 1 teaspoon of sugar to a cup of coffee
that already has 5 teaspoons of sugar in it to notice the difference in
sweetness. If you have a cup of coffee with 10 teaspoons of sugar in
it, how many teaspoons would you have to add to notice the
difference in sweetness at least half the time?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1
2
4
5
Rods and cones are to vision as
___________ are to audition.
A.
B.
C.
D.
eardrums
pinnas
hair cells
cochleas
Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana couldn't
prevent herself from mentally filling the missing notes of the
familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
proximity
similarity
continuity
closure
Taking his first train ride, a child is amazed at how quickly the
fence posts along the track are whizzing by, but the farm in
the distance hardly seems to move. This best illustrates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Retinal disparity
Relative motion parallax
Size constancy
Interposition
Learning
The sound of a sizzling frying pan causes Rob to
salivate uncontrollably. The sound of the sizzling
frying pan is a(n) ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
US
CS
UR
CR
An electric shock administered to the paw of a cat will
elicit foot withdrawal. Before the shocks are presented,
a green light is flashed. Eventually, the green light elicits
foot withdrawal. The green light is the __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
UR
CR
US
CS
In a series of learning trials, food is paired with a whistling
sound. In a series of subsequent trials, the whistle continues to
occur, but it is no longer paired with food. The researcher in
this study is most likely studying ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Generalization
Extinction
Learned helplessness
Spontaneous recovery
Which of the following is a good
example of stimulus discrimination?
A. your dog runs into the kitchen when you take
out the can opener, but not when you take out
the blender
B. your nephew squeals excitedly at the sound of
any song by the Wiggles
C. you no longer wake up when your alarm clock
goes off each morning
D. after being bitten by your neighbor's
dachshund, you are now afraid of every dog
that you encounter
While driving along, you hear the final song from your senior
prom. You immediately experience a strong, positive emotional
response, despite not having heard that song or having thought
of your senior prom for several years. This emotional reaction
is similar to which of the following classical conditioning
concepts?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Extinction
Spontaneous recovery
Generalization
Discrimination
If you wanted to put Little Albert's fear response to the
white rat through the process of extinction, which of
the following should you do?
A. give him candy whenever he encounters
the white rat
B. take away the loud noise whenever he
approaches the white rat
C. repeatedly present the white rat without
the loud noise
D. pair the white rat with the sound of the
voice of Little Albert's mother
Lori gets a backache every day, but if she sits in a hot
bath, then the pain goes away. So, she decides to
take a hot bath every day. She has learned to do this
through ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Positive punishment
Negative punishment
The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper
tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this
case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew's
temper tantrums.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Negative reinforcer
Conditioned stimulus
Positive reinforcer
Punishment
The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper
tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this
case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew's
temper tantrums.
A.
B.
C.
D.
negative reinforcer
conditioned stimulus
positive reinforcer
punishment
Positive reinforcement ____________ the rate of
responding, whereas negative reinforcement
____________ the rate of responding.
A.
B.
C.
D.
decreases; increases
increases; decreases
increases; increases
decreases; decreases
Which of the following is NOT an
example of punishment?
A. your parents take away your telephone
privileges because you failed your algebra test
B. your coach makes you run extra sprints after
practice because you showed up late for
practice
C. the referee of your soccer match presents you
with a yellow card when you slide tackle an
opponent from behind
D. you take medication to get rid of a migraine
headache
The points that you are given for responding
correctly to this question are good examples of
which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Primary reinforcers
Secondary reinforcers
Tertiary reinforcers
Pity points
Luana edits manuscripts for a publisher and is
paid $18 for every three pages she edits. Luana is
reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A.
B.
C.
D.
FR
VR
FI
VI
Memory
Your recollection of how to use your clicker is an example of
____________ memory, whereas your recollection of the
events from your first day of class this semester is an example
of ____________ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
procedural; semantic
semantic; procedural
procedural; episodic
episodic; semantic
Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle
without any conscious recollection that one can do
so best illustrates ________ memory.
A.
B.
C.
D.
explicit
flashbulb
implicit
sensory
When an eyewitness to a robbery is asked to
describe what happened, which test of memory
is being used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
recognition
rehearsal
recall
relearning
Jerry suffered a brain injury when a steel beam fell
on his head. He cannot remember anything that
has happened since the accident. Jerry is
experiencing ____________ amnesia.
A.
B.
C.
D.
retrograde
anterograde
retroactive
proactive
Intelligence and
Intelligence Assessment
© 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D.
A teacher grades by giving men C's and
women A's. This method is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
reliable.
valid.
both reliable and valid.
neither reliable nor valid.
© 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D.
If Marcie's mental age is 10 and her
chronological age is 8, then her IQ is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
80
50
125
What! There’s math in this course?
© 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D.
Correlations between the IQ scores of identical twins
reared together are higher than the correlations
between IQ scores of identical twins reared apart. This
finding suggests that __________ influences IQ scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
genes
environment
gender
bacon intake
© 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D.
It can be inferred from twin studies that
differences between:
A. DZ twins are most likely the product of
environmental factors.
B. MZ twins are most likely the product of
environmental factors.
C. MZ twins and DZ twins are most likely the
product of environmental factors.
D. MZ twins are most likely the product of
genetic factors.
© 2009, Mark A. Laumakis, Ph.D.
Emotion, Stress, and Health
Ten-year-old Vito tells his friend, “When you
notice that your knees knock, your hands sweat,
and your stomach is in knots, then you really get
scared.” This statement best illustrates the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
the James-Lange theory.
the Cannon-Bard theory.
the opponent-process theory.
the Schachter two-factor theory.
Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She
became extremely angry when her younger brother
momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie
viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend,
however, she experienced unusually intense romantic
feelings. Astrid's different emotional reactions to her brother
and her boyfriend are best explained by the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Schachter two-factor theory.
James-Lange theory.
Cannon-Bard theory.
adaptation-level theory.
As her professor distributed the mathematics test to
the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her
palms began to sweat. These physiological reactions
were activated by her ________ nervous system.
A.
B.
C.
D.
sympathetic
central
somatic
parasympathetic
After overcoming the initial shock of having her car
stolen, Maria calls the police for help and begins to
question possible witnesses. At this point, Maria is
most likely in the ________ stage of the general
adaptation syndrome.
A.
B.
C.
D.
alarm
resistance
exhaustion
adjustment
Personality
What is your current belief about the relative contribution
of nature (genetics) and nurture (environment) to
personality? I believe that personality is about ______
nature and about
______ nurture.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
100%; 0%
80%; 20%
60%; 40%
40%; 60%
20%; 80%
0%; 100%
Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send
his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In
defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that “parental financial aid
prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults.”
Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
reaction formation
projection
displacement
rationalization
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his
hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual
certainty illustrates most clearly the defense
mechanism of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
reaction formation.
projection.
repression.
displacement.
A student in your class is very studious and hardworking. She is never late for class and she always turns
in assignments on time. It is likely that she would score
high on which of the following dimensions of the bigfive model of personality?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Psychopathology
The Study of Mental Disorders
Which of the following individuals is
experiencing problems to the degree that
these problems are causing an
impairment in functioning?
A. Joe, who has a hard time getting out of bed on
Mondays, but makes it to work anyway
B. Karen, who gets up an hour earlier than necessary
each day to alphabetize the items in her kitchen
C. Larry, who experiences intense anxiety in social
situations, but still manages to work as a waiter
D. Mike, whose drinking has progressed to the point
that his wife has left him, he's lost his job, and he is
homeless
Which of the following individuals is
experiencing problems to the degree that
these problems are causing an
impairment in functioning?
A. Joe, who has a hard time getting out of bed on
Mondays, but makes it to work anyway
B. Karen, who gets up an hour earlier than necessary
each day to alphabetize the items in her kitchen
C. Larry, who experiences intense anxiety in social
situations, but still manages to work as a waiter
D. Mike, whose drinking has progressed to the point
that his wife has left him, he's lost his job, and he is
homeless
Which of the following factors do you think
plays the largest role in causing
psychological disorders?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Biological factors
Psychological factors
Sociocultural factors
Other factors
Of which of the following are you most
afraid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Heights
Flying
Dogs
Insects
Bridges
Spiders
Snakes
Public speaking
Elizabeth suffers from sudden anxiety attacks that
produce overwhelming feelings of dread. These
attacks become so intense that she is afraid of
leaving her house. What disorder would a clinician
likely diagnose her as having?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Panic disorder with agoraphobia
Panic disorder without agoraphobia
Social phobia
Schizophrenia is most likely to be
characterized by:
A. disorganized and fragmented thinking.
B. a lack of guilt feelings.
C. alternating between extreme
hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
D. periodic intervals of uncontrollable
violence.
If you THINK that there are aliens in your
attic, it's a(n) __________; if you SEE
them, it's a(n) _____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
delusion; hallucination
hallucination; delusion
hallucination; hallucination
delusion; delusion
After several weeks of feeling apathetic and dissatisfied with his
life, Mark has suddenly become extremely cheerful and so
talkative he can't be interrupted. He seems to need less sleep
and becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down.
Mark's behavior is indicative of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
a severe form of depression.
OCD.
agoraphobia.
bipolar disorder.
Which of the following disorders did
you find MOST interesting to learn
something about?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Phobias
Panic disorder
OCD
Major depressive disorder
Bipolar disorder
Schizophrenia
Substance use disorders
Childhood disorders
Treatment of Psychopathology
The SSRIs, such as Prozac, Paxil, and
Zoloft,
A. increase the release of serotonin into the
synapse.
B. increase post-synaptic sensitivity to
serotonin.
C. limit the reuptake of serotonin in the
synapse.
D. are a highly effective class of
medications for schizophrenia.
ECT has been found to be an effective
treatment for _____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
eating disorders
anxiety disorders
schizophrenia
severe depression
With ________, the therapist replaces a
fearful response with a relaxation
response.
A.
B.
C.
D.
systematic desensitization
free association
aversive conditioning
transference
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Social Thinking: Attributions
The presence of others would
ENHANCE the performance of which
of the following individuals?
A. Joe, an expert juggler, who has been
juggling for ten years
B. Cassie, a third grader who has been playing
the piano for ten days
C. Jeremy, an expert golfer, who has been
playing tennis for about three weeks
D. Tracy, a dental hygienist, who is working on
her first patient of her career today
According to Zajonc, the presence of others
would ENHANCE the performance of which of
the following individuals?
A. Joe, an expert juggler, who has been
juggling for ten years
B. Cassie, a third grader who has been playing
the piano for ten days
C. Jeremy, an expert golfer, who has been
playing tennis for about three weeks
D. Tracy, a dental hygienist, who is working on
her first patient of her career today
Expert pool players were observed to make 71
percent of their shots when alone. When four
people watched them, they made 80 percent of
their shots. This best illustrates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
group polarization.
social facilitation.
the bystander effect.
the mere exposure effect.
What percentage of the time do you think that
individuals would go along with the obviously incorrect
answer in Asch's study?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Less than 10% of the time
10-25% of the time
25-50% of the time
50-75% of the time
More than 75% of the time
Sherif’s research utilizing the autokinetic
effect methodology demonstrated the
tendency for people to conform to the
opinions of others in _____________
situations.
A.
B.
C.
D.
competitive
obvious
ambiguous
erotic
Shock Level
Ended by
Researcher
XXX
Danger
Extreme
Intense
Very
Strong
Strong
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Moderate
Slight
Moderate
Strong
Very strong
Intense
Extreme
Danger
XXX
Slight
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Percent Participants
When would you stop?
What percentage of Milgram's participants do
you think would go all the way to the end of
shock generator, delivering the maximum
shock to the learner?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Less than 10%
10-25%
25-50%
50-75%
More than 75%
Percent Participants
0
0
0
Strong
Very
Strong
Shock Level
0
XXX
Ended by
Researcher
0
Danger
Extreme
Intense
0
Moderate
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Slight
Milgram’s Results
65
22.5
12.5
Another View of Milgram’s Results
Social Psychology Research Summary
Researcher
What He Did
What He Found
Triplett
Studying social facilitation, he had
children reel fishing line, either alone or with
a partner
Most children did better with a partner present,
but some did worse
Zajonc
Proposed a resolution to persistent mixed
findings in social facilitation research,
beginning with Triplett
Suggested that presence of others increases
arousal, which enhances dominant, welllearned responses but negatively affects
novel responses
Sherif
Using the autokinetic effect as his
methodology, studied how people are
influenced by others in ambiguous social
situations
Found that estimates of the movement of the
dot on the wall converged in group setting,
demonstrating that people are influenced by
other in ambiguous social situations
Asch
Studied conformity in situations with an
obvious correct answer; asked true
participant to match a line with a series of
three other lines, after hearing incorrect
responses from his confederates
Found that true participants misjudged the
length of the line about 37% of the time, with
increasing likelihood of going along with
incorrect answer as number of confederates
rose to about 6-7 confederates
Milgram
Used deception to study obedience to
authority by “teachers” in a study that was
supposedly about “learning;” “teachers”
shocked “learner” and were ordered to
continue doing so, even after “learner” no
longer responded and might actually be
dead
65% of participant “teachers” continued to
deliver shocks all the way to the end of the
shock generator device, at which point there
were no additional shocks to deliver
If someone redid Milgram's study today,
what do you think would happen?
A. More people would go to the very end of
the shock generator
B. Fewer people would go to the very end
of the shock generator
C. About the same percentage of people
would go to the very end of the shock
generator
In this replication of Milgram's study,
who would be more likely to deliver
the maximum shock level?
A. Men
B. Women
Your professor might be making the fundamental
attribution error if she came up with which of the
following explanations for the poor performance of her
class on the first exam?
A. “My students are lazy. If they had studied,
they wouldn’t have done so poorly.”
B. “I’m a terrible teacher. I know I should have
sold Avon products instead.”
C. “The students were probably just distracted
on the first exam because I walked around
the room singing 'Beat It.'”
D. “If I had made an easier test, then they
would’ve done better.”
Milgram's study with the "teacher" and the
"learner" was about _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
memory
discrimination
obedience
learning

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