Self Confidence, Participation and SelfEsteem… Mr. P. Leighton Mental Preparation for Sport Sports Psychology Today’s Session… Understand the relationship between SELF-CONFIDENCE and SELFEFFICACY. Develop our understanding by using the SELF-EFFICACY THEORY. So what is SELF-CONFIDENCE? Self-Confidence appears throughout both Sports Psychology and our own lives. What other SELF terms do you know? SELF-ESTEEM? Self esteem refers to a consistent degree of confidence that a person displays across a wide range of situations… Self Confidence is therefore a state which is global and stable. Self Confidence and Participation… Self Confidence influences motivation and therefore the duration of participation. Bandura (1977) proposed that as participants become more competent in specific skills they develop positive self belief. Basically- the more you do something the better you feel about it and the more confident you get! Self-Efficacy… Self-Efficacy is a specific type of self confidence. It relates to a persons perception of their own standard of abilities. It is, however, unstable and can be changed through different means. Self-Efficacy in Sport… Leon MacDonald: All Blacks International… High Self-efficacy in most of his game… Low self-efficacy in goal kicking- avoidance of this area. Continued… Bandura stated that people with HIGH selfefficacy tend to adopt APPROACH behaviours, seek challenges and persevere with tasks. They also ATTRIBUTE success to their internal factors that relate directly to themselves i.e. ABILITY and EFFORT. This elevates confidence and increases expectations of success. Self efficacy can, therefore, exert a powerful influence on performance by raising expectations on success… Stuart Broad… Originally just a bowler… Began to get success with the bat- began to bat further up the order… Is now considered the next “Garfield Sobers” and rival to Andrew Flintoff as an all rounder. Low Self Efficacy… These performers tend to adopt AVOIDANCE behaviours. They give up easily and become anxious when things become difficult. They also tend to attribute failure to INTERNAL factors- basically their own shortcomings. This would introduce LEARNED HELPLESSNESS. Self-Efficacy Theory… Levels of self-efficacy determine efficacy expectations which directly influence the choice an individual makes regarding sporting activities. Efficacy then, is influenced by 4 sub-processes which a coach can use to turn negatives into positives and lead to desired ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE. Efficacy Expectations Performance Accomplishments Vicarious Experiences Verbal Persuasion Control of Arousal Performance Accomplishments… A performer who experiences LEARNED HELPLESSNESS or a loss of confidence should be reminded of previous successes in the skill or situation. Reinforcement of past attainments has the most powerful effects upon self-efficacy… Why? Based on PERSONAL MASTERY EXPERIENCES. Vicarious Experiences… Involves the person who lacks confidence watching others of equal ablility perform the problematic skill successfully. Why wouldn’t watching a professional be successful in this situation? Not similar standard- attribution to other factors? Vicarious experiences reduces worry and develops confidence. Verbal Persuasion… Involves convincing the athlete that they have the ability to perform the skill. The positive talk is an attempt to elevate self-belief and is conveyed by the coach. Many successful performers, however, rely on “Positive Self-talk” rather than othersWhy? Success- Attribution to themselves… Control of Arousal… This refers to the evaluation the performer makes of their internal feelings and physiological state. Those lacking in self-efficacy may portray… Increased HR Increased respiration Sweating These are not symptoms of readiness for performance. They show nervousness and worry. Self-efficacy and Elite Performers… “The most consistent difference between elite and less successful athletes is that elite athletes possess greater self-confidence” (Gould et. Al, 1997) High self-efficacy is essential for elite standards. It is equally important to develop a healthy active lifestyle at recreational levels. Although a positive attitude towards exercise does not predict participation (Dishman et al, 1980) it appears that the degree of efficacy is the major motivating factor that encourages engagement in fitness activities. Finally… McAuley (1992) stated that if people can develop high self-efficacy expectations in relation to exercise programmes, they are more likely to adopt and persist in healthy lifestyles by taking up physical activities.