Self Confidence, Participation and Self

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Self Confidence,
Participation and SelfEsteem…
Mr. P. Leighton
Mental Preparation for Sport
Sports Psychology
Today’s Session…
Understand the relationship between
SELF-CONFIDENCE and SELFEFFICACY.
Develop our understanding by using the
SELF-EFFICACY THEORY.
So what is SELF-CONFIDENCE?
Self-Confidence appears throughout both
Sports Psychology and our own lives.
What other SELF terms do you know?
SELF-ESTEEM?
Self esteem refers to a consistent degree
of confidence that a person displays
across a wide range of situations…
Self Confidence is therefore a state which
is global and stable.
Self Confidence and Participation…
Self Confidence influences
motivation and therefore the
duration of participation.
Bandura (1977) proposed
that as participants become
more competent in specific
skills they develop positive
self belief.
Basically- the more you do
something the better you feel
about it and the more
confident you get!
Self-Efficacy…
Self-Efficacy is a specific type of self
confidence.
It relates to a persons perception of their
own standard of abilities.
It is, however, unstable and can be
changed through different means.
Self-Efficacy in Sport…
Leon MacDonald: All Blacks International…
High Self-efficacy in most of his game…
Low self-efficacy in goal kicking- avoidance of
this area.
Continued…
Bandura stated that people with HIGH selfefficacy tend to adopt APPROACH behaviours,
seek challenges and persevere with tasks.
They also ATTRIBUTE success to their internal
factors that relate directly to themselves i.e.
ABILITY and EFFORT.
This elevates confidence and increases
expectations of success.
Self efficacy can, therefore, exert a powerful
influence on performance by raising
expectations on success…
Stuart Broad…
Originally just a bowler…
Began to get success with the bat- began to bat
further up the order…
Is now considered the next “Garfield Sobers”
and rival to Andrew Flintoff as an all rounder.
Low Self Efficacy…
These performers tend to adopt AVOIDANCE
behaviours.
They give up easily and become anxious when
things become difficult.
They also tend to attribute failure to INTERNAL
factors- basically their own shortcomings.
This would introduce LEARNED
HELPLESSNESS.
Self-Efficacy Theory…
Levels of self-efficacy determine efficacy expectations
which directly influence the choice an individual makes
regarding sporting activities.
Efficacy then, is influenced by 4 sub-processes which a
coach can use to turn negatives into positives and lead to
desired ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Efficacy
Expectations
Performance
Accomplishments
Vicarious
Experiences
Verbal
Persuasion
Control of
Arousal
Performance Accomplishments…
A performer who experiences LEARNED
HELPLESSNESS or a loss of confidence
should be reminded of previous successes
in the skill or situation.
Reinforcement of past attainments has the
most powerful effects upon self-efficacy…
Why?
Based on PERSONAL MASTERY
EXPERIENCES.
Vicarious Experiences…
Involves the person who lacks confidence
watching others of equal ablility perform
the problematic skill successfully.
Why wouldn’t watching a professional be
successful in this situation?
Not similar standard- attribution to other
factors?
Vicarious experiences reduces worry and
develops confidence.
Verbal Persuasion…
Involves convincing the athlete that they
have the ability to perform the skill.
The positive talk is an attempt to elevate
self-belief and is conveyed by the coach.
Many successful performers, however, rely
on “Positive Self-talk” rather than othersWhy?
Success- Attribution to themselves…
Control of Arousal…
This refers to the evaluation the performer
makes of their internal feelings and physiological
state.
Those lacking in self-efficacy may portray…



Increased HR
Increased respiration
Sweating
These are not symptoms of readiness for
performance.
They show nervousness and worry.
Self-efficacy and Elite Performers…
“The most consistent difference
between elite and less
successful athletes is that
elite athletes possess greater
self-confidence”
(Gould et. Al, 1997)
High self-efficacy is essential
for elite standards.
It is equally important to
develop a healthy active
lifestyle at recreational levels.
Although a positive attitude
towards exercise does not
predict participation (Dishman
et al, 1980) it appears that the
degree of efficacy is the major
motivating factor that
encourages engagement in
fitness activities.
Finally…
McAuley (1992) stated that if people can
develop high self-efficacy expectations in
relation to exercise programmes, they are
more likely to adopt and persist in healthy
lifestyles by taking up physical activities.

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