BASIC CONCEPTS IN THE WORLD OF CREATIVITY

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BASIC CONCEPTS IN THE
WORLD OF CREATIVITY
Creativity is…
Types of creativity

BIG C
 Sublime creativity
 Prime creativity

Small c
 Everyday
creativity
 Minor creativity
 BIG
Creative individual
 Leonardo da Vinci, al-Jazari, P. Ramlee, Sun-Tzu,
Nicola Tesla, Edison, Einstein etc.
 Creative organisation
 Sun System, ICI, Seiko, Microsoft, BMW, MG, Boeing,
Coca Cola, McDonald, Toyota, HP, Arthur Anderson,
MAN, MOTOROLA, DELL, AT&T, CNN, NABISCO etc.
 Creative country
 USA, Finland, Singapore, Luxembourg, Sweden,
Ireland, Holland, UK, Iceland etc.
(Global Competitiveness Report 2000)
Small c
 Everybody


C
Traditional Thinking vs Innovative Thinking
Thinking Paradigm
Old Thinking
Innovative Thinking
National Focus
Globally Driven
Growth Drivers
Labor/Capital
Knowledge/Creativity
Workers skills
Job Specific
Broad/Cross Training
Degree/Job Skills
Lifelong Learning
Hierarchical
Networked & Horizontal
Stable
Dynamic & Changing
Mass Production
Fluid & Flexible
Lower Priority
Constant & High Profile
Mechanized
Digitalized
Lower Cost/Efficiency
Innovation, High Quality
& Speed
Competition
Education
Organization Structure
Markets
Production
Research
Technology Drivers
Competitive Advantage
Larry R. Williams (2002) in 8 Windows to Creative Thinking
Innovation is…
“Innovation is a process by which new information emerges
and is concretized in a product that meets human needs”.
(Nonaka & Kenney, 1991)
“…is the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a
useful product, service, or method of operation”
(Stephen & David, 2001)
“Innovating is a process of changing, experimenting,
transforming, revolutionizing…”
(Robins & Coulter, 2002)
“Innovation is the process of generating something new and
viable that adds ‘value’ to an individual, organization or
society”
(Ed Benacki, 2002)
“Innovation is typically thought of as putting creative ideas to
work. In the world of business, it connotes a new product or
service or process by which an enterprise can make money
or save money. In the world of science, innovators are often
seen as those scientists and researchers who can convert a
new substances or a new finding into a commercially viable
product. Innovation has always been one of the key
engines or growth for commerce and industry”.
(Janszen, 2000)
“Innovations means taking new ideas and turning them into
corporate and marketplace”
(Jeff & Richard, 2003)
“Innovation refers to the process of bringing any new, problem
solving idea into use. Ideas for reorganizing, cutting costs,
putting in new budgetary systems, improving
communication or assembling products teams are also
innovations.”
(Kanter, 1983)
OBJECTIVE OF INNOVATION
MINIMISE COST
IMPROVE QUALITY
UPGRADE PERFORMANCE
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
Improvement.
Additional.
New
Alan G. Robinson & Sam Stern (1998). Corporate Creativity: How
Innovation & Improvement Actually Happen.
TYPE OF INNOVATION
1. SOCIAL INNOVATION
Efficiency innovation - Kwik-Fit (tyre & exhaust
service), Toyota & JIT, Benetton & ‘colourless
fabric’, Ramly Burger & small outlet etc.
2. TECHNICAL INNOVATION

Evolutionary innovation (incremental) - RAM,
mobile phone etc.

Revolutionary innovation (radical) - new RAM,
new xerox machine etc.
Additional reading: Clayton M. Christensen (2000).
Innovation & The General Manager.
Invention
• Invenire - exist; Invent - to create.
• Lorraine (1997): “Invention is the process through
which something is produced or constructed by
original thought.”
• Braun (1998): “An invention is a novel
technological idea that need never reach production
or the market.”
• Bell (2001): “Invention is science-driven, and today
ultimately derives from the codification of
theoretical knowledge, and from the the unfolding
logic of technology, such as miniaturization, greater
speeds, use of and adaptation to new materials etc.”
Type of INVENTION
1. Concrete product.
•
The product could be observed.
•
Commersialised.
•
e.g. TV, biodegradable plastic bag etc.
2. Abstract product.
•
Social invention.
•
The ‘products’ include formula, method,
strategy, tactic etc.
•
e.g. Hypermarket, OMO, TnG,
CRE8TVTEA
, INNONATION & INVENTION
Risks & Unknown Territory
Richard Fobes (1999), The Creative Problem Solver
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INNOVATION &
INVENTION (1ST PERSPECTIVE)
Invention
Innovation
Creating a novel
product.
Modifying a
product.
High risk.
Unexpected result.
Personal
satisfaction.
Low risk.
Expected result.
Commercial
orientation; making
profit for the
organisation.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INNOVATION &
INVENTION (2ND PERSPECTIVE)
Invention
Involves directly to
technology.
Innovation
Not directly
involved to
technology.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INVENTOR AND
INNOVATOR
Inventor
Innovator
Someone who
Someone who takes
creates or
new ideas and
produces an
turning them into
original device,
corporate and
idea or process.
marketplace.
e.g. Edison
e.g. Morita
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING
Science
Technology
Engineering
Invention
Science
Technology
Goal:
Pursuit of knowledge and
understanding for its own
sake
The creation of artifacts
and systems to meet
people's needs
Goals achieved
through:
Corresponding Scientific
Processes
Key Technological
Processes
Development Methods:
Discovery (controlled by
experimentation)
Design, invention,
production
Evaluation Methods:
Analysis, generalization
and creation of theories
Analysis and synthesis of
design
Motto:
Holism, involving the
Reductionism, involving
integration of many
the isolation and definition
competing demands,
of distinct concepts
theories, data and ideas
Result Relevance:
Making virtually valuefree statements
Activities always valueladen
Mission:
The search for and
theorizing about cause
The search for and
theorizing about new
processes
Sains
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Ilmu.
Satu
penyiasatan
secara
teori/
eksperimen yang sering bersistem
terhadap alam tabii.
Satu bentuk aktiviti budaya.
Satu usaha menyeluruh secara
berkelompok dan tertentu dalam
masyarakat.
Teknologi
Teknik.
Teknologi tertentu.
Satu bentuk aktiviti budaya.
Satu usaha menyeluruh secara
berkelompok dan tertentu dalam
masyarakat.
(Sumber: Azizan, 1993)
Saintis
Ahli teknologi

Melakukan.


Tanya
soalan
(inquiry)
tentang kejadian yang berlaku
kepada alam semula jadi.
Menemui dan mencadangkan
teori baru.
Melakukan eksperimen dalam
keadaan yang terkawal.
Mengesah dan menafikan
teori.

Membangunkan
sistem
untuk
menterjemahkan maklumat dan idea.
Membina
bangunan,
jambatan,
kenderaan dan lain-lain.

Menghasilkan produk dan barangan.

Membawa manusia dan barangan.

Melakukan
pembiakan
tumbuhtumbuhan dan haiwan ternakan baru.



(Sumber: Hacker dan Barden, 1992)
Peringkat
Penanaman dan
penuaian
Pra-proses
Pemprosesan
Tambah nilai dan
pengeluaran produk
akhir
Sumbangan kejuruteraan
Sensor dan penyeliaan, alat menuai
Pengisaran, pengeringan dan penyimpanan, ujian kualiti
Kaedah ekstrak, on-line sensors, analisis kimia,
optimization, sintesis proses dan reka bentuk, kaedah
ekstrak terkini, batch process optimization
Pengeringan spray atau penyejukan, campuran dan
formulasi, pemprosesan batch, kejuruteraan pengeluaran,
pengeluaran hasil akhir (kapsul, tablet atau lain-lain).
(Sumber: Ramlan Abdul Aziz, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi, Sivakumar Kumaresan dan
Dominic Chwan Yee Foo, 2005)

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