MacroMolecules

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Macromolecules
Introduction
• Organic Compounds – contain carbon and
hydrogen atoms
• Inorganic Compounds – contain one or the
other, but not both.
• Most of your body’s molecules are organic.
Macromolecules
• Built from small organic compounds by linking
a lot of chains
Monomers
• Large carbon compounds are built up from
smaller simpler molecules.
Mono = One
Polymers
• When monomers bind to one another to form
a complex molecule.
• Poly = many
• Consists of repeated linked units which bind
forming Macromolecules.
• Macro = large
Chemical reactions
• Monomers link to form polymers through a
chemical reaction called condensation
reaction or dehydration synthesis.
• Water is released or is a byproduct of the
reaction.
Hydrolysis
• Break down of some complex molecules
• Hydrolysis is the reverse of a condensation
reaction.
4 main types of macromolecules
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1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
• Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1
• Glucose formula: C6H12O6
• SHORT TERM ENERGY
• MAIN Source of Energy
Monosaccharide's
• Simple sugars
Examples
1. Glucose: found in blood of animals
2. Galactose: found in milk
3. Fructose: found in fruit
Isomers – same formula, but different structure
Disaccharides
• Contain 2 monosaccharide's joined by
dehydration synthesis.
Examples
1. Lactose: found in milk
2. Sucrose: transported in plants
Polysaccharides
• Carbohydrates formed from linking individual
sugars into long chains.
Examples
1. Starch: storage of glucose in in plants
2. Cellulose: contained in cell walls of plants
3. Glycogen: storage of glucose in animals
(stored in the muscles and liver)
Lipids
• Do not dissolve in water
3 Functions
1. Energy storage – LONG TERM ENERGY
2. Structural support for cell membranes
3. Serve as a reactant (starting material) for
metabolic reactions
Lipids Cont.
• Phospholipids make up the cell membrane.
Fatty Acids
• Building blocks that make up most lipids
• Classified as either saturated or unsaturated
Saturated Fatty Acids
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Have the maximum number of bonds possible
They are full
Usually solid at room temp
Most come from animal products
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
• Have double bonds in the carbon chain
• Most are liquid at room temp
• Usually referred to as oils
Triglycerides
• Tri = 3
• Common lipid that contains fatty acids
• Glycerol linked to 3 fatty acids in the shape of
an E by condensation reaction.
Proteins
• Composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and
nitrogen atoms
• Construction materials for body part like hair,
skin, nails, and blood
Amino Acids
• The building blocks that make up most
proteins.
• 20 different kinds of amino acids
Enzymes
• Important group of proteins
• Help control chemical reactions by acting as
catalysts.
• Catalysts speed up reactions by lowering the
activation energy.
• Enzyme rates are affected by Ph, hot and cold
temperatures.
Enzymes - Add
• Substrates – reactants of enzyme – catalyzed
reactions.
• Reduces the energy needed for the reaction.
• Works like a lock and key.
VERY IMPORTANT
• Proteins DO NOT produce, store, transmit, or
have anything to do with ENERGY.
• Do not get confused with protein bars!!!
Nucleic Acids
• Complex organic molecules that store genetic
information in the cell.
Nucleotides
• Nucleotides are the building blocks that make
up most nucleic acids
• Consist of sugar, base, phosphate
3 main types of Nucleic Acids
• 1. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid
– Genetic info inside the nucleus of cells
2. RNA – Ribonucleic acid
- code for protein synthesis
3. ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate
- Contains a base, sugar, and 3 phosphates
- ATP is used as energy for the cell

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