Cognitive Information Processing

Report
Instructional Technology 6260
Cognitive Information
Processing Theory
Cognitive Information Processing
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Without looking at one, draw a picture of a
penny
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Without looking at it, try to describe your
watch:
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what color is the face
what marks the hours
what color are the hands
is there a second hand
does it say anything on the face
Assumptions of Human
Information Processing
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Some learning processes are unique to humans
Mental events are the focus of study
The study of human learning must be objective and
scientific
Individuals are actively involved in the learning process
Learning involves the formation of mental associations
that are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior
changes
Knowledge is organized
Learning is a process of relating new information to
previously learned information
Terminology
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Cognitive Process- any internal mental event and includes
such phenomena as perceiving, attention, interpretation,
understanding and remembering
Learning vs. Memory - learning is viewed as the acquisition
of new information. Memory is related to the ability to
recall information that has been previously learned
Storage - the process by which new information is placed
in memory
Retrieval - the process by which people “find’ the
information they have previously stored so they can use it
again
Encoding - the process by which information is modified
before it is stored - often helps storage
Dual-Store Model of MemoryAtkinson-Shiffrin model
lost
input
input
input
Sensory
Register
lost
Short-term
Memory
lost?
Long-term
Memory
Sensory Register
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capacity
form of storage
duration
The Role of Attention
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the process by which people select some
of the environmental input they receive for
further cognitive processing
What do you see?????
Factors Influencing Attention
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Size
Intensity
Novelty
Incongruity
Emotion
Personal Significance
Competition between similar tasks
Which letters first draw your
attention?
aB cD
Read the Italics Print...
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Somewhere Among hidden the in most the spectacular Rocky
Mountains cognitive near abilities Central City is Colorado the
an ability old to miner select hid one a message box from of
another gold. We Although do several this hundred by people
focusing have our looked attention for on it, certain they cues
have such not as found type it style.
Incongruity
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I took a walk to the rabbit this morning.
Processes Underlying Attention
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selective attention
automaticity
bottleneck effect
Short-term Memory
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capacity
storage form
duration
Example 1. Memorize in sequence:
808810844033542
How many right?
15-12
11-8
7-4
4-1
Example 2. Memorize in sequence:
435797100084322
How many right?
15-12
11-8
7-4
4-1
Control Processes in STM
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Chunking
Rehearsal
Retrieval
Long-Term Memory
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Capacity
Form of Storage
Duration
Control Processes in LTM
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Storage
Retrieval
Are STM and LTM Really Different?
Consider:
 acoustic vs. semantic memories
 brain injury patients
 changes due to aging
Metacognition/ Executive Control
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people’s knowledge of their own learning,
cognitive processes and their regulation
of those processes to enhance learning
and memory. Also known as thinking
about thinking.
Implications for Instruction
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Encourage multiple representations for
encoding
Organize information to maximize retrieval
Support metacognition
Link new material to prior knowledge
Minimize interference
Recognize STM limitations

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