Putting Things in Order Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 5. 1.__________Germany’s resumption of submarine warfare forces the United States into a declaration of war. 2.__________The Senate’s final defeat of the Versailles treaty and a Republican election victory end Wilson’s last hopes for American entry into the League of Nations. 3.__________The United States takes the first hesitant steps toward preparedness in the event of war. 4.__________The effectiveness of American combat troops in crucial battles helps bring about an Allied victory in World War I. 5.__________Wilson struggles with other Allied leaders in Paris to hammer out a peace treaty and organize the postwar world. Cause 1. ___ Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare Effect a. Led to major racial violence in Chicago and East St. Louis, Illinois 2. ___ Wilson’s Fourteen Points b. Forced Democrats to vote against a modified treaty and killed American participation in the League of Nations 3. ___ The wartime atmosphere of emotional patriotism and fear 4. ___ Women’s labor in wartime factories c. Stopped the final German offensive and turned the tide toward Allied victory 5. ___ The migration of African Americans to northern cities d. Allowed domestic disillusionment and opposition to the treaty and League to build strength 6. ___ American troops’ entry into combat in the spring and summer of 1918 e. Finally pushed the United States into World War I 7. ___ Wilson’s political blunders in the fall of 1918 8. ___ The strong diplomatic demands of France, Italy, and Japan 9. ___ Senator Lodge’s tactics of delaying and proposing reservations in the Versailles treaty 10. ___ Wilson’s refusal to accept any reservations supported by Lodge. f. Weakened the president’s position during the peacemaking process g. Caused harsh attacks on German Americans and other Americans who opposed the war h. Lifted Allied and American spirits and demoralized Germany and its allies i. Forced Wilson to compromise his Fourteen Points in order to keep the League as part of the peace treaty j. Helped pass the Nineteenth Amendment but did not really change society’s emphasis on the maternal role Analyzing Visual Propaganda This exercise involves analyzing visual propaganda designed to make emotional appeals on behalf of a cause. In this case, the propaganda was designed to enlist the American public’s support for the war effort against Germany. The kinds of propaganda used on behalf of a cause can tell the historian a great deal about what issues were perceived to be at stake and what public values were being appealed to. Answer the following questions about the cartoons and drawings in this chapter. 1.What caused American entry into World War I, and how did Wilson turn the war into an ideological crusade? 2.What did American women gain from their participation in the war effort? What did they fail to obtain? 3.What was America’s military and ideological contribution to the Allied victory? 4.How were the goals of the war presented to the American public? Did these lofty and idealistic goals eventually contribute to the deep American disillusionment at the conclusion of the war? Why or why not? 5.How was Wilson forced to compromise during the peace negotiations, and why did America, in the end, refuse to ratify the treaty and join the League of Nations? 6.Do you agree that despite Wilson’s failure to obtain all his goals, he made the Versailles Peace Treaty much better than it would have been had he not been in Paris? Why or why not? 7.Apart from such immediate factors as the Lodge-Wilson antagonism, what general features of earlier American history worked against American involvement in European affairs and participation in the League of Nations? 8.Do you agree that the final responsibility for the failure of America to join the League of Nations lies with Woodrow Wilson rather than with his opponents like Henry Cabot Lodge? Why or why not? 9.What really caused the overwhelming Republican victory in the election of 1920? 10.Ever since World War I and its aftermath, many of the fundamental debates about American foreign policy have been defined by whether the United States should pursue Wilsonianism or not. Using the account of Wilson’s policies in the text and “Varying Viewpoints,” outline the essential principles of Wilsonianism and explain why they have been so powerful and yet so controversial in American history. Chapter 30 The War to End War 1917-1918 The War Wilson attempts to keep out. Germany announces on Jan. 31, 1917 unrestricted submarine warfare on all ships in the war zone. U.S. breaks of diplomatic relations but refuses war unless an overt act. Wilson asks Congress to arm merchant ships. Midwestern senators attempt a filibuster to block. Isolationism in Midwest. Zimmermann note; Secret proposal of a German-Mexican alliance. Promise of returning Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. In March 4 U.S. merchant ships are sunk. Russian Revolution. Now claim a fight for democracy. Wilson asks for declaration of War April 2, 1917. Why did it come to this? How to gain support? “Make the World Safe for Democracy” Base the fight on ideals. Wilson truly believed in his ideals. Modern Governments could not afford to wage warfare in the modernized Industrial age. Too destructive. Isolationists or Crusdaers. Appeal worked. 8 Million German Americans with at least 1 foreign born parent. Fear and rumors spread of spys. A few are attacked and 1german socialist lynched. Hatred of Germans and German things swept the nation. Music (Orchestra), Books removed, german classes canceled, Sauerkraut=Liberty Cabbage, Hamburger=Liberty steak, Beer became suspect breweries like Schlitz and Pabst. Espionage act and Sedition acts reflect fears about Germans. Anti-war socialists and Industrial workers of the world (IWW). Eugene V. Debs and William D. Haywood convicted under Espionage act. Criticism of government could be censored and punished. Schenck v. United States (1919), S.C. affirms acts. Speech could be revoked when it poses clear and present danger to the nation. Warm Up 1-20-15 1. Describe how Wilsonian idealism turned the war into an ideological crusade for democracy that inspired public fervor and suppressed dissent. 2. Describe how America’s mobilization for war and its reliance primarily on voluntary methods rather than government force. M.A.I.N. - Long term Causes Combination of these four things led to increased tensions brewing in the near future Make a decision… Which one would you argue was the strongest cause of war? Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Conflict is brewing… Triple Entente (Allied Powers) Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Great Britain France Russia (Later- USA) Germany Austria Hungary Italy (Later- Ottoman Empire) Mobilize for War U.S. not sufficiently prepared for war. No one knew true potential for building for war causes. State right’s and business owners’ balked at federal economic controls. Freewheeling hit or miss policies might be considered dangerous to a directed war effort. Even in crisis Americans preferred laissezfaire policy to an extent. Workers in Wartime “Work or Fight” threat of any unemployed male to be drafted. Government tries to treat labor fairly. National War Labor (Taft) work to head of Labor disputes. Samuel Gompers and AF of L supported the war. Doubled membership by end of war. WWI “Wobblies” not supportive. Protested against some of the worst working conditions. Creel Propoganda George Creel; responsibility of arousing the public to the cause. Bill Boards “Battle of the fences”, Leaflets, Propaganda books, Hang the Kaiser movies. “The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin” Songs; George Cohan’s “Over There” U.S. mobilization relied on passion and voluntary compliance. Too much? If fail to deliver on everything disillusionment sets in. Propaganda War • The British accused the Germans of using the bodies of the dead soldiers for making soap and fertilizer • Germans made big mistakes in their propaganda effort • The British won the propaganda War. 1. Anti-German Propaganda (p.749): How do the words and image of this poster work together to persuade an American audience to buy liberty loans? Besides the specific message, what general portrait of Germany, the war, and America’s reasons for fighting are conveyed? p680 2. Patriotic Persuasion (p. 749): How does this army recruitment poster convey the idea that both patriotism and social solidarity can be served by joining the military? At what social class of young man is the poster evidently aimed? p681 3. Food for Thought (p. 755): How does this poster visually make the connection between the patriotic war effort and gardens? What specific words or phrases create the link between women’s food-growing effort and military service on fields of combat? What specific appeal is this image making to women? p686 1919 Steel Workers Strike, 1/4 million, force employers to recognize their right to organize and bargain collectively. 30,000 African Americans brought in to keep mills running. Brutal confrontation, leads to strike collapse. African Americans drawn to the North in war time by industry employment. Beginnings of the massive trek northwards. Sparks interracial violence in cities once all white. East St. Louis and Chicago. Woman’s influence Woman took on jobs left by men headed to the front line. Did split the woman’s movement between pacifists (National Woman’s Party) and those supporting efforts (National American Woman Suffrage Association) New momentum towards suffrage. Wilson endorsed woman’s suffrage as a vital war measure. 19th Amendment ratified in 1920. Creating a War Economy Feed the country and the Allies. Hoover led the Food Administration. Used voluntary rather than compliant methods. Used propaganda campaigns for compliance. Wheatless Wednesday, meatless Tuesday, patriotic to the core. Victory gardens. Restricted foodstuffs for creating alcohol which accelerated the movement towards prohibition. 18th amendment in 1919. Farm production increased and exports tripled. Continued Fuel Administration urged people for heatless Mondays, lightless nights, gasless Sundays. Treasury Department sponsored huge parades and slogans “Halt the Hun” to promote four Liberty Loan drives together with Victory Loan campaign, mounted 21 Billion dollars. Various kinds of pressures (patriotic) used to sell bonds. Rope around the neck!! Occasional exercise of government power. Railroad takeover after traffic congestion problems in 1917. Constructing new ships. Creating an Army Allies low on man power and needs U.S. manpower on the continent. Conscription needed to raise the numbers. Fear of retaliation in some parts. 6 weeks after declaration of war congress passes conscription. All males 18-45, no purchase exemption or substitutes. Exemption in key industries (shipbuilding). Army grew to 4 million. African Americans still serve separate as construction battalions. Mobilizing troops to Europe Russia collapse provides a need for haste. Germans focus on W. Front. No effective American force would get there for a year after declaration of war. 1st troops sent to quiet sectors with British and French. Contributed forces to other parts including in Russia. America Helps Hammer the Hun German drive spring of 1918 with 1/2 million troops pushed forward within 40 miles of Paris. Allies unite under French marshal Foch. By July German drive was spent. Foch sets up a counteroffensive in the Second Battle of Marne. Beginning of German withdrawl. September 1918, 9 American divisions joined 4 french divisions at St. Mihiel. Meuse-Argonne offensive Sept. 26-Nov. 11. Germans staggering towards surrender German Surrender Germans turn to Wilson in Oct. 1918. Based on 14 points. Kaiser had to be kicked out. Kaiser forced to flee to Holland. Nov. 11, 1918. (11th hour) War ends. U.S. contributions; foodstuffs, munitions, credits, oil, and manpower. Not battlefield victories, but prospect of endless U.S. reserves that demoralized Germany. Wilson’s post war Struggles High expectations and popularity for the President Wilson. Political strife at home was kept under the surface until the war concluded. Wilson personally appeals for a democratic victory in Congressional election. Nov. 1918. Republicans win; a narrow majority in Congress. Wilson’s power is diminished. Wilson to Europe, upsets Republicans. Grandstanding. No single Republican Senator in his peace Struggles continued… Henry Cabot Lodge was snubbed. New chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Wilson’s Idealism in conflict with France and Italy’s Imperialism. Keep President at arms length from people. David Lloyd George (Britain), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), George Clemenceau (France). Speed urgent, fear of anarchy and communism spreading throughout war torn Europe. Wilson’s ultimate goal: League of Nations. 1st focus on limiting parceling out Europe to the victors. Not take territories outright but receive it as trustees of the League of Nations. Became a disguise of prewar colonialism. France-Syria, and British take oil rich Iraq. Wilson big victory was agreement to the League of Nations. Hammering out the Treaty. Wilson returns to a hostile Senate. Lodge in lead of an Isolationist group intent of keeping America out of Europe affairs. “irreconcilables” or Battalion of Death” Republican senators claim they won’t approve the League of Nations. Looking for safeguards in the Monroe Doctrine and other American interests. French demands the Rhinelands and Saar Valley, compromise popular vote, 15 years. continued Arguments with Italy over the seaport Fiume. Wilson appeal to Italy’s masses failed. Issue with Japanese, & Control of the Shandong Peninsula with 30 million Chinese. Japan threatens to walk out and U.S. compromise. Japan keeps economic holdings and pledge to return peninsula at a later time. Chinese outraged by Imperialism. Wilson is taking hits. Fourteen Points Wilson becomes the morale leader of the cause. 14 Points Address on January 8, 1918. 1st Five; Abolish secret Treaties, Freedom of Seas, Remove economic barriers, Reduce military forces, adjust colonial claims. Antiimperialism flavor. Hope of independence to minorities,(Poles) 14th Point foreshadows the League of Nations. Response of Allied Leaders? The Treaty Treaty of Versailles forced upon the Germans who were not involved in negotiations. German hope for peace based on Wilson’s 14 points. Only about 4 were fully honored. Allies torn by conflicting aims of war. Secret Treaties among them. Wilson forced to compromise to save his League of Nations. Condemned by imperialists and disillusioned liberals. Problems back Home Isolationists raised protest against the treaty commitment to the League of Nations. Critics from all sides. Gemans, Italians, Irish Americans. Senator Lodge tries to Americanize the treaty in the senate. Uses delay methods. (Reading all 264 pages in the Senate Foreign relations committee.) Bogged in the Senate. Wilson would appeal to the masses in a speech making tour against physicians advice Wilson’s tour took its toll finally in Pueblo Colorado, collapsed from exhaustion. Suffered a stroke several days later. Next few weeks he stayed in a darkened room. Did not meet his cabinet for the next 7 months. Defeat through Deadlock Lodge came up with 14 reservations to the treaty. Slap in face to Wilson. Reserve the rights of the Monroe Doctrine and the Constitution, protect American Sovereignty. Wilson outraged at Lodge called for all democratic senators to vote against the treaty with the Lodge reservations in it. Treaty rejected. Public outrage. Senators in favor of a treaty with or without but couldn’t get enough either way. 2nd time again Wilson refused to accept it with Lodge Reservations so again it couldn’t get a 2/3 majority to ratify it. How defeated the Treaty? Lodge-Wilson feud, traditionalism, isolationism, disillusionment, partisanship can all bear some. Wilson has to share substantial blame. Election of 1920 Republicans nominated Warren G. Harding of Ohio. Easy to mold to the wishes. Took a teeter tooter stand on the League. Vague Democrats supported James Cox of Ohio. Ran on support of the League of Nations. Harding’s victory symbolizes shift away from Wilson and his star reaching idealisms to a normalcy president. Betrayal of Great Expectations. League of Nations was undercut when the U.S. didn’t become a part of it. Collapse of treaty has to be in part to America. Buried its head in the sand.