4-G Technology

Report
4G-TECHNOLOGY
CONTENTS
•Introduction
•What is 4G?
•Evolution of 4G
•A look at fundamental requirements
•Evolution of processors and DSP Technology
for 4G
•The 3G
•The 4G
CONTENTS:
•
•
•
•
•
•
3G:Some unfinished Business
4G Wireless: one view
Path Losses And fading challenge
Which countries have 4G?
Infrastructure for 4G
4G in India
• 4G, the successor of 3G, will soon
become the standard for cellular wireless
• The technology is currently available in
some countries but it is still being
perfected
• The aim is to achieve “ultra broadband
speed” – to be counted in gigabytes per
second
• 4G is short for Fourth (4th) Generation
Technology. It is basically the extension in the 3G
technology with more bandwidth and services offers
in the 3G.
• Will allow users to download a full-length
feature film within five minutes
• Will also be able to stream high-definition
television and radio to hand-held devices
• The basic difference between 3G and 4G is in
data transfer and signal quality
• The highest download and upload speed in 3G
are 14 Mbps and 5.8 Mbps respectively
• In 4G the download speed is up to 100 Mbps
for moving users and 1 Gbps for stationary
users
• 4G is adoption of packet switching instead of
circuit switching in voice and video calls
• With packet switching, resources are only used
when there is information to be sent across
• 4G uses spiral multiplexing
• The first commercial deployment was by Telia
Sonera and NetCom
• Telia Sonera branded the network “4G”
• The modem devices on offer were
manufactured by Samsung (dongle GT-B3710)
• The network infrastructure were created by
Huawei (in Oslo) and Ericsson (in Stockholm)
A Look at Fundamental
Requirements
Human Sense
Sound
Sight
Knowledge
1G-2G
Voice
-
Low Speed Data
3G
Voice
Images
Hypertext (HT)
4G
Voice, Speech
Video
Files (Speech, HT,
Video)
Typical Bandwidth
10-80 Kbps
1 - 20 Mbps
0.5-10 Mbps
Required Latency
<160 ms
<100 ms
<5 s
Principal Application
Communication
Entertainment
Information
↓ Network Generation
The 3G
Large Coverage
Outdoor - High Mobility
Up to 14Mbps
The 4G
Macro Cells
Large Coverage – 100Mbps Coverage
Outdoor - High Mobility
Pico Cells
Isolated HotSpots – 1Gbps Coverage
Indoor – Very Low Mobility
• What we need
o
o
Adaptive high performance transmission system
Great candidate for SDR
3G: Some Unfinished Business
Technical
Financial
• Improved coverage
(e.g., residences)
• Balance sheet cleanup
(debt reduction)
• Inter technology roaming
• Capacity Utilization
• Inter carrier compensation
(esp. data services)
• Business Models for
New Services
4G Wireless: One View
•
4G WOFDM high speed downlink “a
wireless cable modem”
•
Complement to EDGE/UMTS
•
High peak data rates (up to 10 Mb/s) in
a 5 MHz channel
•
•
spectrum - 500 MHz to 3 GHz
3G EDGE/WCDMA network for uplink,
downlink, control and signalling
Path Loss and Fading Challenge
Path
Loss
Reflected
signals
Delay arrive spread
Spread out
over 5 to 20
microsecond
path loss up to
~ 150 dB
(that is a 1
followed
by 15 zeroes)
Rayleigh
Fading
rapid fading of 20 to 30 dB
(power varies by 100 to 1000 times
in level at rates of about 100 times per
second)
• Except for the Scandinavian countries, a
few countries have started the 4G
commercially
• In the US, Sprint Nextel initiated the
service last year
• Countries expected to launch 4G by this
year are Germany, Spain, China, Japan
and England
• There are three primary technologies that
support 4G – WiMax, LTE, and UMB
• The main doubt is whether to implement
WiMax or LTE
• The advantages of LTE are:
(i) Faster speed with 100 Mbps for download
and 50 Mbps for upload
(ii) It makes CDMA and GSM database moot
(iii) It offers both FDD and TDD duplexing
• Has already begun the process of
introducing 4G
• India is among the latecomers in 3G
• It is felt that by the time the implement 3G
fully, 4G technologies such as LTE will be
available commercially
• It has taken three years for the
government to decide on 3G-spectrum
auction policy
• 4G could face the same delay unless
India wants to catch up with the rest of the
world
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